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Our studies of the association between the lesser earless lizard (Holbrookia maculata) and Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) revealed: (1) the lesser earless lizard was more abundant on prairie dog colonies than off, (2) lesser earless lizard abundance was positively correlated with prairie dog burrow abundance; (3) lesser carless lizards responded positively to artificial burrows created on noncolonized areas; and (4) lesser earless lizards used prairie dog burrows as refuges from predators; however, the relative use of burrows was greatest at high and low temperature extremes. Although prairie dogs alter habitat in many ways, our study suggests that burrows are an important mechanism involved in the...
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Introduced American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) come in contact with native amphibians on four continents and are well established in lowlands of western North America. To date, research on the effects of introduced bullfrogs on native frogs has focused on competition and predation, and is based largely on larval interactions. We present observations of interspecific amplexus between bullfrogs and two native ranid frogs (R. aurora and R. pretiosa) from six sites across the Pacific Northwest that imply that this interaction is more widespread than currently recognized. Our observations indicate that R. catesbeiana juveniles and subadults in this region are of appropriate size to elicit marked amplectic responses...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Midland Naturalist
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Predation by mink (Mustela vison) on three types of ducks (captive, pen-reared-released and wild) was documented in two studies at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota. In the first study, 36 of 60 flightless adult and juvenile ducks held on eight 0.1-acre experimental ponds disappeared between 10 July and 4 August 1969. Available evidence indicated that all were killed by a large adult mink. The mink selected recently released incubator-hatched ducklings, females in the process of incubating, and adults and juveniles on a marginal food supply.In the second study, 152 wood duck ducklings (Aix sponsa) were released on a 76-acre marsh during 1971. Half of the ducklings, when 24 to...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Midland Naturalist
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The Neosho madtom is a small, short-lived catfish species endemic to gravel bars of the Neosho River in Kansas, Oklahoma and Missouri, U.S.A. It spawns during summer in nesting cavities excavated in gravel. Although the species has survived dam construction within the Neosho River basin, its declining numbers resulted in it being added to the federal threatened species list in 1991. To test how water flow affects the reproductive behavior of Neosho madtoms, we compared activities of male-female pairs in static versus flowing-water aquaria. Using a behavioral catalog, we recorded their behavior sequences during randomly selected 5-min nighttime periods. For males and females, Jostle and Embrace were the most performed...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Midland Naturalist
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Pastures provide substantial habitat for grassland birds of management concern in the Driftless Area of southwestern Wisconsin. The rolling topography in this region is characterized by lowland valleys surrounded by relatively steep and often wooded slopes which are set apart from more expansive treeless uplands. We hypothesized that there would be lower densities of area sensitive grassland passerines in lowland grasslands compared to upland grasslands because of their preference for larger more open grasslands. To test this hypothesis and assess how well pasture area and vegetation structure predicted grassland passerine density compared to upland/lowland status, we conducted point counts of birds in 60 pastures...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Midland Naturalist
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The dog louse was found on 19 wolves (Canis lupus) and six coyotes (C. latrans) from Minnesota and Wisconsin during the July-February, 1973 through 1983, period. No evidence was found that lice had any serious effect on wolf survival.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Midland Naturalist
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Limited information exists regarding summer resource selection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in grassland regions of the Northern Great Plains. During summers 2005-2006, we analyzed habitat selection of adult female white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota. We collected 1905 summer locations and used 21 and 30 home ranges during 2005 and 2006, respectively, to estimate habitat selection. Results indicated that selection occurred at the population (P < 0.001) and home range (P < 0.001) levels. Deer selected for Conservation Reserve Program grasslands and corn during both summers and shifted selection temporally within summer. Use of CRP grasslands occurred during early summer; 73.1 and 88.9%...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Midland Naturalist
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Exotic invasive plant species differ in their effects on indigenous vegetation as evidenced by research evaluating community response to their removal. We used a removal approach to quantify the response of a mesic woodland to the removal versus retention of an invasive plant, Hesperis matronalis (dame's rocket) from paired treatment plots over 3 y. Cover of H. matronalis did not differ between control and treatment plots prior to removal, declined in the removal plots and remained significantly lower in cover compared to the control plots. Removal did not significantly affect species richness and species diversity (evenness, Shannon and Simpson) at the plot scale, but did result in increased species richness overall...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Midland Naturalist
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We used locations of 6 wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota from Global Positioning System (GPS) collars to compare day-versus-night locations to estimate territory size and location during summer. We employed both minimum convex polygon (MCP) and fixed kernel (FK) methods. We used two methods to partition GPS locations for day-versus-night home-range comparisons: (1) daytime = 0800-2000 Ah; nighttime = 2000-0800 Ah; and (2) sunup versus sundown. Regardless of location-partitioning method, mean area of daytime MCPs did not differ significantly from nighttime MCPs. Similarly, mean area of daytime FKs (95% probability contour) were not significantly different from nightime FKs. FK core use areas (50% probability contour)...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Midland Naturalist
Contrary to the reports of several authors, Acomus generosus, a sucker of the subgenus Pantosteus of Catostomus, may have been collected in Big Cottonwood Creek or Little Cottonwood Creek, Salt Lake County, Utah, and possibly in Provo River, Utah County, Utah. Multiple Pantosteus species may exist in Provo River. Synonymies of the suckers that have been collected in Provo River and ?Cottonwood Creek? are provided. A comparison of their morphologies shows several distinctions. There is a need for further systematic (including up-to-date biochemical) analyses of these catostomids. Published in American Midland Naturalist, volume 143, issue 2, on pages 422 - 432, in 2000.
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The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) was designed to reduce soil erosion and curb agricultural overproduction by converting highly erodible agricultural land to various forms of perennial habitat. It has had an incidental benefit of providing habitat for wildlife and has been beneficial in reversing population declines of several grassland bird species. However, the mechanisms behind these reversals remain unknown. One such mechanism may be differences in food availability on CRP vs. non-CRP land or between different types of CRP. The influence of CRP habitat type on the abundance of arthropod prey used by grassland birds has not been previously explored. We compared the abundance and diversity of arthropods among...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Midland Naturalist
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We examined the interactions among insectivorous birds, arthropods and white oak saplings (Quercus alba L.) in a temperate deciduous forest under 'open' and 'closed' canopy environments. For 2 y, we compared arthropod densities, leaf damage and sapling growth. Saplings from each canopy environment were assigned to one of four treatments: (1) reference, (2) bird exclosure, (3) insecticide and (4) exclosure + insecticide. Sap-feeding insects were the most abundant arthropod feeding guild encountered and birds reduced sap-feeder densities in 1997, but not in 1998. Although there was no detectable influence of birds on leaf-chewer densities in either year, leaf damage to saplings was greater within bird exclosures than...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Midland Naturalist
Artemisia tridentata has increased dramatically during the past 100 yr throughout the sagebrush steppe at the expense of late-seral perennial grasses. This study was designed to determine the effects of addition or depletion of different nitrogen forms on aboveground vegetative and reproductive growth of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis and Stipa thurberiana, a late-seral grass. Treatments included application of sugar (45 g m-2), nitrate (4.5 g N m-2), ammonium (4.5 g N m-2) and a control. Both nitrogen forms significantly increased Stipa aboveground biomass and tiller density. Individual tiller weight was not different among treatments. Added nitrogen also increased aboveground biomass, total shoot density...
A study was conducted from July 1965 to September 1966 on the biology of Gunnison's prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni gunnisoni) in South Park, Park Co., Colorado. Prairie dogs within the colony were loosely organized into clans with adult females playing the major role in caring for the young and! warning of danger. Clan boundaries were not patrolled or defended by clan members, but individual burrows, burrow systems or food supplies were protected by individual animals. Little aggression was observed within the clans but members of different clans would engage in disputes when they encountered each other in the common feeding areas. Females had a high ratio of successful pregnancies or uterine implantation sites,...
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The Yellowstone River is the longest unimpounded river in the conterminous United States. It has a relatively natural flow regime, which helps maintain diverse habitats and fish assemblages uncommon in large rivers elsewhere. The lower Yellowstone River was thought to support a diverse nongame fish assemblage including several species of special concern. However, comprehensive data on the small nongame fish assemblage of the lower Yellowstone River is lacking. Therefore, we sampled the Yellowstone River downstream of its confluence with the Clark’s Fork using fyke nets and otter trawls to assess distributions and abundances of small nongame fishes. We captured 42 species (24 native and 18 nonnative) in the lower...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Midland Naturalist
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We report a population of Bigeye Shiner Notropis boops in the South Fork Hughes River drainage of the Little Kanawha River, West Virginia. A total of 27 individuals of N. boops were collected during five sampling efforts from 1999 to 2005. These specimens represent an addition to the state fauna, a distributional record for the Little Kanawha River, and an eastern range extension for this species on the Appalachian Plateau, West Virginia. Notropis boops in the South Fork Hughes River drainage likely represents a native population.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Midland Naturalist
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Survival and cause-specific mortality of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been well documented in forested and agricultural landscapes, but limited information has been collected in grassland habitats typical of the Northern Great Plains. Our objectives were to document and compare survival and cause-specific mortality of adult female white-tailed deer in four distinct ecoregions. We captured and radiocollared 190 (159 adult, 31 yearling) female white-tailed deer and monitored (including deer from a previous study) a total of 246 (215 adult, 31 yearling) deer from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2007. We documented 113 mortalities; hunting (including wounding loss) accounted for 69.9% of all mortalities...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Midland Naturalist
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Previous research has indicated fewer host-specific ectoparasites on woodrats of the eastern United States as compared to western woodrat species. The Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) is a species of conservation concern that is associated with rocky habitats in the Appalachian and Interior Highland regions in the eastern United States. We examined Allegheny woodrat flea parasites in the core of the distribution to further elucidate patterns of ectoparasite host specificity in woodrats of the eastern United States. Of 346 fleas collected from 62 Allegheny woodrats, all but 1 were identified as Orchopeas pennsylvanicus. The single exception was a male Epitedia cavernicola, which represents only the second collection...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Midland Naturalist
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We used a mark-recapture method and model averaging to estimate apparent survival, recruitment and rate of population growth in a native freshwater mussel population at a site on the Cacapon River, which is a tributary to the Potomac River. Over 2200 Elliptio complanata, E. fisheriana and Lampsilis cariosa were uniquely tagged over a period of 4 y. Recapture probabilities were higher in spring and summer than in winter except for L. cariosa which had a low probability of recapture regardless of time of year. All three species had high annual adult survival rates (>90%) with lower estimated survival of small (???55 mm) mussels (43%-69%). The variation in apparent survival over time was similar for all three species....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Midland Naturalist
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Quarrying in east-central Indiana has uncovered richly fossiliferous unconsolidated sediment buried beneath Pleistocene glacial till. The fossiliferous layer is part of a sedimentary deposit that accumulated in a sinkhole developed in the limestone flank beds of a Paleozoic reef. Plant and animal (mostly vertebrate) remains are abundant in the fossil assemblage. Plants are represented by a diversity of terrestrial and wetland forms, all of extant species. The vertebrate assemblage (here designated the Pipe Creek Sinkhole local fauna) is dominated by frogs and pond turtles, but fishes, birds; snakes and small and large mammals are also present; both extinct and extant taxa are represented. The mammalian assemblage...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: American Midland Naturalist