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The use of biomass crops as an energy source is frequently mentioned as an option to reduce CO 2 emissions. To evaluate the possibilities reliable yield estimates of biomass crops are required. In this paper a simple method is developed to estimate regional yields of various biomass crops, based on the linear relation between intercepted light and biomass production. The quality of the estimates was studied by using the method to estimate yields of several agricultural crops in two regions in The Netherlands. In general a deviation of less than 10 % was found between actual and estimated average yield.
Past climate changes have led to considerable changes in the species composition of ecosystems. The recent increase in average global temperature is rather strong compared to previous warming periods and, if climate models are correct, future warming will be even stronger. Especially in Europe where the landscape has been greatly fragmented by human activities, the ongoing and projected changes in climate will pose an additional stress on the natural biodiversity. This paper will discuss a method for the selection of bio-indicators to assess the possible landscape-ecological effects of climate change, and presents some preliminary results of the selection of indicator species for the Netherlands.
Climate change results in an alteration of spatial and temporal patterns of climate hazards. The trend in weather related disaster seems upward. Various socio-economic sectors are affected by these changes, e.g. the disaster reduction institutions and the insurance industry. We report about an ongoing project addressing the vulnerabilities of sectors affected and policy options in various sectors, notably "Storms over NW-Europe", "the insurance sector" (both as a sector impacted by change and as a mechanism to cope with risk) and "cyclones in the South Pacific".