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The Bull Trout (Salvelinus confluentus) is widely distributed within the region and occupies a variety of large lakes, small headwater streams and larger river systems. Of all the native salmonids in the Pacific Northwest, the Bull Trout generally has the most specific habitat requirements, which are often referred to as “the four Cs”: cold, clean, complex, and connected habitat. In November 1999, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed all Bull Trout populations within the lower 48 States of the United States as threatened pursuant to the Endangered Species Act. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s 2015 Bull Trout Recovery Plan lists historical habitat loss and fragmentation; interactions with nonnative species...
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The Delta Smelt (Crystallaria asprella) is only found in the Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta in California and requires estuaries for juvenile and adult habitat along with the ability to migrate into tributary rivers to spawn in the spring. Declines of Delta Smelt can largely be attributed to the changes and fluctuations in flow of the estuarine ecosystem. Reduced flows resulting from water projects have resulted in saltwater intrusion into the Delta, which has reduced the amount of preferred habitat for spawning and nursery areas. When increased amounts of water are released by the water projects, larvae and adults become entrained and die, and both the fish themselves and the food they depend on are washed...
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Partnerships - Driftless Area Restoration Effort, Great Lakes Basin Fish Habitat Partnership, Ohio River Basin Fish Habitat Partnership, Reservoir Fisheries Habitat Partnership, and Fishers and Farmers Partnership Restored 738 acres of wetland and over 400 feet of stream habitat in Ohio. Removed 1 barrier in Iowa that reconnected 69 miles of stream habitat for Smallmouth Bass and many coolwater species. Restored 1750 feet of shoreline and added 100 feet of structure to lake shorelines in Illinois. Augmented three mussel populations on four Indiana rivers, giving two federally-endangered species a new foothold in the basin. Launched a basin-wide mussel initiative to identify and address stressors in quality streams...
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Partnerships - Driftless Area Restoration Effort, Great Lakes Basin Fish Habitat Partnership, Great Plains Fish Habitat Partnership, Midwest Glacial Lakes Partnership, Fishes and Farmers Partnership, and Reservoir Fisheries Habitat Partnership Partners removed: one barrier in Minnesota that increased fish passage to over 3 miles of streams; 12 barriers in Wisconsin that increased fish passage by 12 miles and reconnected 15 acres of wetlands to streams; and 13 barriers in Michigan that reconnected over 147 miles of streams. In Wisconsin, enhanced 13.0 stream miles for Brook Trout including tributary spawning habitat, 20.5 miles of mixed Brook/Brown Trout water, and 13.2 miles of stream for Brown Trout. Improved...
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The Central Mississippi River states contain the confluences of the Upper Mississippi River with the Ohio, Missouri, and Arkansas rivers. Alteration of these large rivers for transportation and flood control has substantially altered their ecological characteristics, eliminating natural floodplains, sandbars, and meanders, and impeding fish migration routes. Other major tributary rivers include the Tennessee, Cumberland, Kentucky, and Osage, all very large rivers in their own right. Large reservoirs are common in the landscape of this region and have increased recreational opportunities for sportfish as well as many other activities, but typically suffer from dissolved oxygen issues in both the reservoirs and in...
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Runoff and other land-based pollution from large riverside cities such as Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Wilmington, and Washington, DC, New York City, and surrounding suburban sprawl adversely affect fish habitats in the Delaware, Susquehanna, Ohio, Hudson,and Potomac River basins, as well as many smaller streams. A concentration of human population and impervious surfaces extends from northeastern New Jersey to southeastern Virginia and to the coastal areas of the Mid-Atlantic. For example, the 2015 assessment determined high degradation risk in streams along the I-95, I-81, and I-79 corridors. Urban development continues to spread, as rural land in the states of this region declined by 5.9 million acres from 1982...
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While this assessment has found that many of the inland streams were at a low or very low risk of degradation, some fish habitat disturbances, including water diversions, timber harvest practices, and intensity of livestock grazing in watersheds, could not be directly included in this assessment because national datasets of these disturbances and their component variables are unavailable. These disturbances are known to have major, negative effects on fish habitats in this region. Their absence from this assessment, along with absences of other disturbances, has likely produced an overestimation of habitat condition (quality) for some water bodies. These gaps need to be kept in mind while examining the results....
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The Prairie Chub (Macrhybopsis australis) requires streams with gravel and rock bottoms and can live with high levels of dissolved salts that occur in intermittent streams in the upper Red River Basin, Texas. This Texas-listed species of special concern is potentially threatened by large-scale chloride removal planned for the upper Red River Basin that could drastically change the stream chemistry required by this unique fish species.
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The Guadalupe Bass (Micropterus treculii) is endemic to the spring-fed central Texas rivers and streams. This species is threatened by a number of factors that have contributed to its overall decline including decreased stream flows, habitat loss and degradation, and hybridization with non-native Smallmouth Bass.
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Table displays native stream taxa included in the 2015 assessment.
Tags: 2015, Hawaii, Table
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Map of the risk of current fish habitat degradation of inland streams of the Southwestern States.
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The Chesapeake Logperch is native to Maryland and Pennsylvania; populations in Virginia have been extirpated. It requires rocky habitat in larger rivers and is listed as imperiled. This species has suffered from water quality and habitat degradation in the larger rivers in Mid-Atlantic States with mining, agriculture, and wastewater discharges, which causes elevated metal concentrations, suspended solids, nutrient loading, pH, and high oxygen demand in river waters.
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The Greater Redhorse (Moxostoma valenciennesi) is sensitive to habitat changes, particularly excessive siltation, and pollution. Other threats include river channelization, alterations to flow regimes, dam construction, and removal of riverside vegetation. Barriers are especially problematic as this is a wide-ranging species that has different flow and habitat requirements for different stages of development.
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Five National Fish Habitat Partnerships are working to protect intact and improve altered fish habitat in Alaska including: 1) Southeast Alaska Fish Habitat Partnership; 2) Matanuska-Susitna Basin Salmon Habitat Partnership; 3) Kenai Peninsula Fish Habitat Partnership; 4) Southwest Alaska Salmon Habitat Partnership; and 5) Western Native Trout Initiative. The results of some of their work includes: Removed 17 fish passage barriers on high priority salmon streams in the Anchorage area, opening 54 miles of upstream habitat and access to 604 acres of lakes, all critical rearing areas for Pacific salmon and other salmonids. Worked with partners and private landowners to voluntarily protect nearly 8,000 acres of...
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The Columbia River is the fourth largest river by volume in North America, draining an area the size of France (670,000 square kilometers). There are 14 dams on the main stem of the Columbia River and more than 450 dams throughout the entire Columbia Basin. The dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries produce half of the electricity used in the Pacific Northwest. These dams have completely altered river habitat and significantly changed the river’s flow, water quality, and Pacific salmon spawning runs along with the survival of out-migrating smolts. By discharge, the Sacramento River is the second largest river on the west coast of the contiguous United States, after only the Columbia River, which has almost...
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Arctic Grayling (Thymallus arcticus) now inhabits less than 5 percent of its historic river range in the Mountain States. This species requires high-quality coldwater habitat with long, un-fragmented reaches. Historically, glacial relict river populations were found in the Upper Missouri River Basin with another now extinct population in the Midwest (Michigan). The Arctic Grayling has been affected by water withdrawals, barriers to movement, and habitat degradation. One of the last strongholds, the Big Hole River in Montana, was reduced to a trickle in the summers of the 1990s as a result of irrigation withdrawals. Recent cooperative efforts, which include better water management, have improved populations of Arctic...
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In the 1990s, urban land in Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana increased by about 10 percent. Currently, Ohio and Illinois are among the 10 most populous states in the nation, while Indiana is 16th. Over 31 million people live in these three states. Large cities such as Chicago, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, and Cleveland, as well as the suburban sprawl throughout the region, have created large areas of impervious surfaces and urban pollution near the rivers and lakes. These factors are known to degrade fish habitat by changing water flow (hydrology) and by adding excessive amounts of nutrients, pollutants and sediment into the waters in this region.
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Assembling data Data on stream fishes were provided for use in the 2015 assessment from many federal and state agencies and organizations from around the country. For a list of data providers, see Table 2. Due to the cooperation and support of multiple data providers, the 2015 assessment used stream fish assemblage data from 39,405 stream reaches as compared to 26,468 stream reaches in 2010 assessment. Data now reflects abundances of different fish species found in streams throughout the conterminous United States. Besides fish data, many different human (anthropogenic) landscape factors were assembled and used to characterize habitat condition. These factors include: urban and agricultural land use; intensity...
Tags: 2015, CONUS, Method
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While this assessment has found that much of the stream habitat in this region is at low or very low risk of degradation, some key fish habitat disturbances, including water withdrawals or diversions and intensity of livestock grazing in watersheds, could not be directly included in this assessment because national datasets of these disturbances and their supporting variables are unavailable. These disturbances are known to have major, negative effects on fish habitats in this region. Their absence from this assessment, along with absences of other disturbances, has likely produced an overestimation of habitat condition (quality) for some water bodies. Despite such absences, impairment to fish habitats was determined...
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Wheat, corn, and soybeans are some of the primary crops grown in the Northern Plains States. About 8.5 million acres, one-fourth of the state’s land area, are used to grow wheat in North Dakota. In areas of intense cultivation, streams are often channelized for irrigation, reducing their habitat value for fish as temperature, in-channel cover, and stream flow are significantly changed. In addition, watersheds dominated by row-crop agriculture discharge excess sediment and nutrients to downstream waters. Agricultural water withdrawal was also one of the most limiting disturbances identified in this assessment. A large number of groundwater wells in the Nemaha River basin in southeast Nebraska, an area dominated by...


map background search result map search result map Southwestern States - Risk of Current Fish Habitat Degradation Map Fish Habitat Partnership Activities for the Upper Midwest States Summary of scientific findings for Pacific Coast States Summary of Scientific Findings for Central Mississippi River States Habitat Trouble for Arctic Grayling in Mountain States Habitat Trouble for Greater Redhorse in Central Midwest States Description of Urban Land Use as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Central Midwest States Habitat Trouble for Guadalupe Bass in Southern Plains States Habitat Trouble for Bull Trout in Pacific Coast States Habitat Trouble for Prairie Chub in Southern Plains States Fish Habitat Partnership Activities for Alaska Description of Urban Land Use and Pollution as Human Activities Affecting Fish Habitat in Mid-Atlantic States Habitat Trouble for Chesapeake Logperch in Mid-Atlantic States Facts About Pacific Coast States Fish Habitat Partnership Activities for the Central Midwest States Habitat Trouble for Delta Smelt in Pacific Coast States Description of Agriculture as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Northern Plains States Summary of Scientific Findings for Southern Plains States Description of Urban Land Use and Pollution as Human Activities Affecting Fish Habitat in Mid-Atlantic States Habitat Trouble for Chesapeake Logperch in Mid-Atlantic States Description of Agriculture as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Northern Plains States Habitat Trouble for Greater Redhorse in Central Midwest States Description of Urban Land Use as a Human Activity Affecting Fish Habitat in Central Midwest States Fish Habitat Partnership Activities for the Central Midwest States Summary of Scientific Findings for Central Mississippi River States Fish Habitat Partnership Activities for the Upper Midwest States Summary of scientific findings for Pacific Coast States Habitat Trouble for Bull Trout in Pacific Coast States Facts About Pacific Coast States Habitat Trouble for Delta Smelt in Pacific Coast States Southwestern States - Risk of Current Fish Habitat Degradation Map Habitat Trouble for Arctic Grayling in Mountain States Habitat Trouble for Guadalupe Bass in Southern Plains States Habitat Trouble for Prairie Chub in Southern Plains States Summary of Scientific Findings for Southern Plains States Fish Habitat Partnership Activities for Alaska