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To test if reflectance increases to sedimentary organic matter (vitrinite) caused by broad ion beam (BIB) milling were related to molecular aromatization and condensation, we used Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies to evaluate potential compositional changes in the same vitrinite locations pre- and post-BIB milling. The same locations also were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine topographic changes caused by BIB milling (as expressed by the areal root-mean-square roughness parameter Rq). Samples consisted of four medium volatile bituminous coals. We used a non-aggressive BIB milling approach with conditions of [(5 min, 4 keV, 15°incline, 360° rotation at 25 rpm and 100%...
Geological models for petroleum generation suggest thermal conversion of oil-prone sedimentary organic matter in the presence of water promotes increased liquid saturate yield, whereas absence of water causes formation of an aromatic, cross-linked solid bitumen residue. To test the influence of exchangeable hydrogen from water, organic-rich (22 wt.% total organic carbon, TOC) mudrock samples from the Eocene lacustrine Green River Mahogany zone oil shale were pyrolyzed under hydrous and anhydrous conditions at temperatures between 300 and 370°C for 72 hrs. Petrographic approaches including optical microscopy, reflectance, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, supplemented...
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The U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered unconventional hydrocarbon resources reservoired in the Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa marine shale (TMS) of southern Mississippi and adjacent Louisiana in 2018. As part of the assessment, oil- source rock correlations were examined in the study area where operators produce light (38-45° API), sweet oil from horizontal, hydraulically-fractured wells in an overpressured ‘high-resistivity’ (>5 ohm-m) zone (HRZ) at the base of the TMS. Our initial characterization of TMS samples indicated overall low organic carbon (avg. TOC ~1.0%) and dominance of a gas-prone Type III or mixed Type II/III kerogen, potentially inconsistent with a self-sourced petroleum system model for...
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This data release contains the boundaries of assessment units and input data for the assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas in the Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa Marine shale of the U.S. Gulf Coast. The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is defined within the context of the higher-level Total Petroleum System. The Assessment Unit is shown herein as a geographic boundary interpreted, defined, and mapped by the geologist responsible for the province and incorporates a set of known or postulated oil and (or) gas accumulations sharing similar geologic, geographic, and temporal properties...
The nanoscale molecular composition of kerogen is a challenging parameter to characterize given the chemical and structural complexity exhibited by this important biopolymer. However, kerogen composition will strongly impact its reactivity and so is a critical parameter to understand petroleum generation processes during kerogen catagenesis. The recent advent of tip-enhanced analytical methods, such as atomic force microscopy-based infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR), has allowed for the major compositional features of kerogen to be elucidated at spatial resolutions at or below 50 nm. Here we apply AFM-IR to examine inertinite, an important kerogen maceral type, from an immature Eagle Ford Shale sample. Our data show...
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Solid bitumen is a petrographically-defined secondary organic matter residue produced during petroleum generation and subsequent oil transformation. The presence of solid bitumen impacts many shale reservoir properties including porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon generation and storage, amongst others. Furthermore, solid bitumen reflectance is an important parameter for assessing the thermal maturity of formations with little to no vitrinite. While the molecular composition of solid bitumen will strongly impact associated parameters such as the development of organic matter porosity, hydrocarbon generation, and optical reflectance, assessing the molecular composition of solid bitumen in situ within shale reservoirs...
Note: this data release is currently being revised and is temporarily unavailable. This dataset covers Rock-Eval and reflectance data.
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This study contains TOC and programmed pyrolysis data, as well as vitrinite reflectance collected from 12 samples taken from the Babouri-Figuil Sedimentary basin in northern Cameroon.
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Fractionation of petroleum during migration through sedimentary rock matrices has been observed across lengths of meters to kilometers. Selective adsorption of specific chemical moieties at mineral surfaces and/or the phase behavior of petroleum during pressure changes are typically invoked to explain this behavior. Given the current emphasis on unconventional (continuous) resources, there is a need to understand petroleum fractionation occurring during expulsion and migration at the nanometer to micron scale, due to the fine-grained nature of petroliferous mudrocks. Here organic matter compositional differences observed within kukersite petroleum source beds (containing acritarch Gloeocapsomorpha prisca) from the...
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Here the spatial variation in Raman estimates of thermal maturity within individual organic domains from several shale geologic reference materials originating from the Boquillas, Marcellus, Niobrara, and Woodford Formations are assessed from the respective Raman response. We show that for all four shales the thermal maturity parameters extracted from Raman spectra by iterative peak fitting can vary widely across distances of ≤5 µm within the same organic domain.
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The molecular composition of petroliferous organic matter and its composition evolution throughout thermal advance are key to understanding and insight into petroleum generation. This information is critical for comprehending hydrocarbon resources in unconventional reservoirs, as source rock organic matter is highly dispersed, in contact with the surrounding mineral matrix, and may be present as multiple organic matter types. Here, a combination of Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy approaches was applied to a marginally mature (vitrinite reflectance ~0.5%) sample of the Late Cretaceous Boquillas Shale before and after hydrous pyrolysis (HP) at 300 °C and 330 °C for 72 hours. This experimental design allowed...
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This data release contains Rock-Eval pyrolysis, organic petrographic (reflectance), and X-ray diffraction mineralogy data for subsurface Mesozoic rock samples from the eastern onshore Gulf Coast Basin (primarily Mississippi and Louisiana). Samples were analyzed in support of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources in the Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa marine shale and evaluation of shale gas prospectivity in the Aptian section of the Mississippi Salt Basin.
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This work investigates the characterization of bituminite (amorphous sedimentary organic matter) in Kimmeridge Clay source rock via confocal laser canning microscopy (CLSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). As part of an International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology working group, an immature (0.42% vitrinite reflectance), organic-rich (44.1 wt.% total organic carbon content) sample of Kimmeridge Clay (sample KC-1) was distributed to multiple laboratories for CLSM characterization. Findings from AFM include the observation that surface roughening or surface flattening of bituminite are induced by differential broad ion beam (BIB) milling and are dependent on the location and scale of AFM topology measurement....
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This study presents a simplified method and empirical relationships for determining organic matter thermal maturity using a portable Raman system equipped with a 785 nm laser, for analysis of crushed, whole-rock samples. Several sets of rocks comprised of shale and coal samples with various mineralogical composition, thermal maturity, total organic carbon (TOC), and age were used to test the method and build correlations between Raman band separation (RBS) values and traditional thermal maturity indicators; organic matter reflectance (Ro) and programmed temperature pyrolysis (Tmax) values. Several sample preparation methods were tested on cuttings material and standard deviation values for RBS were minimized by...
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Bitumen reflectance data from a sample collected from the vertical EOG TATTOO D129 A28-F/094-O-10 ("Tattoo") well in the Horn River Basin, as part of the collection of a high-resolution geochemical data set.
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Biochar is a carbon-rich substance that is derived through the thermochemical conversion of biomass. Biochar is recognized for its significance in environmental applications and sustainable agriculture. In an effort to comprehend how the source material and pyrolysis parameters influence its properties, reflected light microscopy is being used to produce microscopic images for analysis of selected physical and chemical properties. An atlas of microscopic images of biochar has been compiled by the Indiana Geological and Water Survey at Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA, containing more than 300 images contributed by researchers across the globe. USGS contributed 13 photomicrograph images from two biochar source...


    map background search result map search result map Petroleum geology data from Mesozoic rock samples in the eastern U.S. Gulf Coast collected 2011 to 2017 High Microscale Variability in Raman Thermal Maturity Estimates from Shale Organic Matter - Data Release USGS Gulf Coast Petroleum Systems and National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Projects-Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins and Western Gulf Provinces, Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa Marine Shale Assessment Unit Boundaries and Assessment Input Data Forms Nanoscale Molecular Fractionation of Organic Matter within Unconventional Petroleum Source Beds (2019) Oil-source rock correlation studies in the unconventional Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa marine shale petroleum system, Mississippi and Louisiana, USA (2019) Investigating the effects of broad ion beam milling to sedimentary organic matter Nanoscale Molecular Composition of Solid Bitumen from the Eagle Ford Group Across a Natural Thermal Maturity Gradient Atomic Force Microscopy-based Infrared Spectroscopy Data within Immature Eagle Ford Shale at the Nanometer-scale Maverick Basin Rock-Eval Data Reflectance, Raman band separation and Mean multivariant curve resolution (MCR) in organic matter in Boquillas Shale Bitumen Reflectance Data from the Tattoo Well in the Horn River Basin, Sample E200205 Reflectance and confocal laser scanning fluorescence spectroscopy of bituminite in Kimmeridge Clay TOC, Reflectance and Raman Data from Eocene Green River Mahogany zone Portable Raman spectroscopic analysis of bulk crushed rock Data from Cretaceous formations of the Babouri-Figuil Sedimentary Basin, northern Cameroon Microscopic Images of Leonardite and Humate Biochar: Using Reflected Light Microscopy in Biochar Characterization Reflectance and confocal laser scanning fluorescence spectroscopy of bituminite in Kimmeridge Clay Bitumen Reflectance Data from the Tattoo Well in the Horn River Basin, Sample E200205 High Microscale Variability in Raman Thermal Maturity Estimates from Shale Organic Matter - Data Release Data from Cretaceous formations of the Babouri-Figuil Sedimentary Basin, northern Cameroon Reflectance, Raman band separation and Mean multivariant curve resolution (MCR) in organic matter in Boquillas Shale Oil-source rock correlation studies in the unconventional Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa marine shale petroleum system, Mississippi and Louisiana, USA (2019) Nanoscale Molecular Fractionation of Organic Matter within Unconventional Petroleum Source Beds (2019) TOC, Reflectance and Raman Data from Eocene Green River Mahogany zone USGS Gulf Coast Petroleum Systems and National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Projects-Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins and Western Gulf Provinces, Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa Marine Shale Assessment Unit Boundaries and Assessment Input Data Forms Petroleum geology data from Mesozoic rock samples in the eastern U.S. Gulf Coast collected 2011 to 2017 Atomic Force Microscopy-based Infrared Spectroscopy Data within Immature Eagle Ford Shale at the Nanometer-scale Maverick Basin Rock-Eval Data Investigating the effects of broad ion beam milling to sedimentary organic matter Microscopic Images of Leonardite and Humate Biochar: Using Reflected Light Microscopy in Biochar Characterization Portable Raman spectroscopic analysis of bulk crushed rock