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Florida panthers are among the world’s most endangered — and elusive — animals. For approximately four decades, scientists have been researching this small population of panthers that inhabit the dense forests and swamps of south Florida. Because of their wide habitat range along with an absence of clear visual features, these animals are difficult to detect and identify. In 2013, however, researchers released a study that used camera trap images collected between 2005 and 2007 to generate the first statistically reliable density estimates for the remaining population of this subspecies. Camera traps — remotely activated cameras with infrared sensors — first gained measurable popularity in wildlife conservation...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: The Wildlife Professional
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A daily precipitation-runoff model was developed to estimate spatially and temporally distributed recharge for groundwater basins in the San Gorgonio Pass area, southern California. The recharge estimates are needed to define transient boundary conditions for a groundwater-flow model being developed to evaluate the effects of pumping and climate on the long-term availability of groundwater. The area defined for estimating recharge is referred to as the San Gorgonio Pass watershed model (SGPWM) and includes three watersheds: San Timoteo Creek, Potrero Creek, and San Gorgonio River. The SGPWM was developed by using the U.S. Geological Survey INFILtration version 3.0 (INFILv3) model code used in previous studies of...
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Corpus Christi Bay and Nueces Bay comprise the middle estuarine portion of Texas’ Coastal Bend region (Figure 1; Burgan and Engle, 2006). Aransas Bay is part of the upper estuarine portion of the region. These bays make up part of the Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, one of the many estuarine areas in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Estuary Program (Holt, 1998). The Coastal Bend region is sub-humid and sub-tropical. Summers are long, hot, and humid, and winters are short and mild. The landscape around the estuaries is dominated by row crops, pastures, and brushy rangeland (Handley and others, 2007). The Nueces River, along with other smaller rivers and creeks, provides freshwater inflow...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Shale is now commonly exploited as a hydrocarbon resource. Due to the high degree of geochemical and petrophysical heterogeneity both between shale reservoirs and within a single reservoir, there is a growing need to find more efficient methods of extracting petroleum compounds (crude oil, natural gas, bitumen) from potential source rocks. In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) was used to extract n-aliphatic hydrocarbons from ground samples of Marcellus shale. Samples were collected from vertically drilled wells in central and western Pennsylvania, USA, with total organic carbon (TOC) content ranging from 1.5 to 6.2 wt %. Extraction temperature and pressure conditions (80°C and 21.7 MPa, respectively)...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Energy & Fuels
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Mallard (Anus platyrhynchos) populations in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (hereafter, LMAV) comprise the largest concentration of wintering Mallards in North America. Radiotelemetry techniques were employed to assess movements by female Mallards during winters of 2004-2005 and 2005-2006; 467 paired (diurnal and nocturnal) observations on 80 radiomarked females were attained to assess effects of date, female age, hunting regime and habitat type on distances moved and potential habitat switching. Distance moved increased with date for females diurnally located in RICE but decreased for females in FOREST. Median movement distance was 1.5 km, suggesting suitable habitats for all activities were in close proximity....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Waterbirds
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Relationship between species' home range and their other biological traits remains poorly understood, especially in migratory birds due to the difficulty associated with tracking them. Advances in satellite telemetry and remote sensing techniques have proved instrumental in overcoming such challenges. We studied the space use of migratory ducks through satellite telemetry with an objective of understanding the influence of body mass and feeding habits on their home-range sizes. We marked 26 individuals, representing five species of migratory ducks, with satellite transmitters during two consecutive winters in three Indian states. We used kernel methods to estimate home ranges and core use areas of these waterfowl,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Current Zoology
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Population connectivity is an important consideration in studies of disease transmission and biological conservation, especially with regard to migratory species. Determining how and when different subpopulations intermingle during different phases of the annual cycle can help identify important geographical regions or features as targets for conservation efforts and can help inform our understanding of continental-scale disease transmission. In this study, stable isotopes of hydrogen and carbon in contour feathers were used to assess the degree of molt-site fidelity among Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) captured in north-central Mongolia. Samples were collected from actively molting Bar-headed Geese (n = 61),...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Waterbirds
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In November 2013, U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging equipment was installed at a historical water-quality station on the Duwamish River, Washington, within the tidal influence at river kilometer 16.7 (U.S. Geological Survey site 12113390; Duwamish River at Golf Course at Tukwila, WA). Publicly available, real-time continuous data includes river streamflow, stream velocity, and turbidity. Between November 2013 and March 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey collected representative samples of water, suspended sediment, or bed sediment from the streamgaging station during 28 periods of differing flow conditions. Samples were analyzed by Washington-State-accredited laboratories for a large suite of compounds, including...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Data Series
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Burbot Lota lota are a key demersal piscivore across the Laurentian Great Lakes whose populations have declined by about 90% in recent decades. Larval Burbot typically hatch in the early spring and rely on abundant crustacean zooplankton prey. We examined the stomach contents of larval Burbot from inshore (≤15 m) and offshore sites (37 and 91 m) in northern Lake Huron, Michigan. Concurrent zooplankton vertical tows at the same sites showed that the prey community was dominated by calanoid copepods, dreissenid mussel veligers, and rotifers. Burbot consumed mostly cyclopoid copepods, followed by copepod nauplii and calanoid copepods. Chesson's index of selectivity was calculated and compared among sites and months...
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Considering the harmful and irreversible consequences of many biological invasions, early detection of an invasive species is an important step toward protecting ecosystems (Sepulveda et al. 2012). Early detection increases the probability that suppression or eradication efforts will be successful because invasive populations are small and localized (Vander Zanden et al. 2010). However, most invasive species are not detected early because current tools have low detection probabilities when target species are rare and the sampling effort required to achieve acceptable detection capabilities with current tools is seldom tractable (Jerde et al. 2011). As a result, many invasive species go undetected until they are...
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Mountain ecosystems within our national parks and other protected areas provide valuable goods and services such as clean water, biodiversity conservation, and recreational opportunities, but their potential responses to expected climatic changes are inadequately understood. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI) is a collaboration of scientists whose research focuses on understanding and predicting responses of western mountain ecosystems to climatic variability and change. It is a legacy of the Global Change Research Program initiated by the National Park Service (NPS) in 1991 and continued by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to this day as part of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (http://www.climatescience.gov/)....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Park Science
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Roll-type uranium deposits contain both ore-stage pyrite and preore or diagenetic pyrite that was present in the host rock before the deposits began to form. Ore-stage pyrite forms as the result of redistribution and accretion from the preore pyrite. Accretion of the ore-stage pyrite seems to be governed by natural laws that limit its concentration to only a few times the concentration of the preore pyrite. Accumulations of ore-stage pyrite build up along the leading edge of a supergene oxidation zone which spreads through the host rocks, literally pushing the ore deposits ahead of it. The ore-stage pyrite probably progresses much as a wave that first grows to a nearly fixed amplitude and thereafter is steadily...
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We investigated the relations among 83 hydrologic condition metrics (HCMs) and changes in algal, invertebrate, and fish communities in five metropolitan areas across the continental United States. We used a statistical approach that employed Spearman correlation and regression tree analysis to identify five HCMs that are strongly associated with observed biological variation along a gradient of urbanization. The HCMs related to average flow magnitude, high-flow magnitude, high-flow event frequency, high-flow duration, and rate of change of stream cross-sectional area were most consistently associated with changes in aquatic communities. Although our investigation used an urban gradient design with short hydrologic...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrobiologia
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Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation,...
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The Rio Grande in the Big Bend region is subject to rapid geomorphic change consisting of channel narrowing during years of low flow, and channel widening during rare, large, long duration floods. Since the 1940s, there have been large declines in mean and peak stream flow, and the channel has progressively narrowed. Large, channel widening floods are infrequent and have failed to widen the channel to widths measured prior to the onset of channel narrowing in the 1940s. Before the most recent channel-widening flood in September 2008, the Rio Grande in the Big Bend was more than 50 percent narrower than measured in the 1940s. Channel narrowing results in increased flood frequency and flood magnitude due to the loss...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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We present evidence that the Seattle fault zone of Washington State extends to the west edge of the Puget Lowland and is kinemati-cally linked to active faults that border the Olympic Massif, including the Saddle Moun-tain deformation zone. Newly acquired high-resolution seismic reflection and marine magnetic data suggest that the Seattle fault zone extends west beyond the Seattle Basin to form a >100-km-long active fault zone. We provide evidence for a strain transfer zone, expressed as a broad set of faults and folds connecting the Seattle and Saddle Mountain deformation zones near Hood Canal. This connection provides an explanation for the apparent synchroneity of M7 earthquakes on the two fault systems ~1100...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geosphere
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As the only extant deepwater cisco in Lake Michigan, bloater is currently at record low levels of abundance. Several mechanisms to regulate their recruitment have been proposed, including skewed sex ratios, predation on their larvae by adult alewife, and climatic factors during early life history stages, but none has unequivocal support. In this research, we evaluated an alternative mechanism of egg predation that was supported by an inverse relationship between bloater recruitment and biomass of slimy sculpin, which are known to be effective egg predators. To that end, we used a combination of field sampling, laboratory experiments, and modeling to estimate the proportion of bloater eggs consumed by sculpins...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Ground water is the primary source of water for domestic, public-supply, and industrial use within the Tri-County region that includes Clinton, Eaton, and Ingham Counties in Michigan. Because of the importance of this ground-water resource, numerous communities, including the city of Mason in Ingham County, have begun local Wellhead Protection Programs. In these programs, communities protect their groundwater resource by identifying the areas that contribute water to production wells and potential sources of contamination, and by developing methods to manage and minimize threats to the water supply. In addition, some communities in Michigan are concerned about water availability, particularly in areas experiencing...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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The Liberty Island Conservation Bank (LICB) is a tidal freshwater marsh restored for the purpose of mitigating adverse effects on sensitive fish populations elsewhere in the region. The LICB was completed in 2012 and is in the northern Cache Slough region of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. The wetland vegetation at the LICB is stunted and yellow-green in color (chlorotic) compared to nearby wetlands. A study was done to investigate three potential causes of the stunted and chlorotic vegetation: (1) improper grading of the marsh plain, (2) pesticide contamination from agricultural and urban inputs upstream from the site, (3) nitrogen-deficient soil, or some combination of these. Water samples were collected from...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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Samples of water, bed material, fish, and soil were collected in four small drainage basins in Pennsylvania in 1969-71 and analyzed to determine the concentrations of chlorinated-hydrocarbon insecticides. Water samples only were also analyzed for phenoxy-acid herbicides. Each basin studied represents a predominant land-use classification—forested, general farming, residential, and orchard farming. All water and fish samples showed pesticide concentrations less than the U.S. Public Health Service's (1969) recommended maximum permissible concentration. However, no fish were found in the orchard area stream at the time collection was attempted. DOT or one of its metabolites was the most frequently occurring insecticide...