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This is the Supporting Material for Chapter 06: Paired Difference Tests of the Center. This chapter addresses using matched-pair tests. As opposed to the tests of chapter 5, we now consider data having a logical pairing of observations within each group.
Data Sets for the actual evapotranspiration (AET) rates from 2000 to 2017 in east-central and northeast Florida basins calculated using water-budget balance analysis (WBA), the Simplified Surface Energy Balance Operational (SSEBop) method, and the land-cover types method
Average annual Actual Evapotranspiration (AET) rates for basins in east-central and northeast Florida from 2000 to 2017 were calculated using a water-budget balance equation. These AET rates are used to assess the reliability of the AET rates calculated using the Simplified Surface Energy Balance operational (SSEBop) method. The AET annual rates, from 2000 to 2017 for the Simplified Surface Energy Balance operational (SSEBop) method and from 2000 to 2016 for the land-cover method were provided in the shapefile AET_SJR_Basin_Cells, explained in the metadata file AET_SJR_Basins. Measured AET monthly rates in file AET_Monthly_Totals.csv were calculated at these ET monitoring stations in central and east-central Florida:...
These geospatial data were collected during the May 30-31, 2017 topographic and hydrographic survey of the Snake River at West River Road near Shelley, ID.
This is the Supporting Material for Chapter 05: Testing Differences Between Two Independent Groups. This chapter discusses the nonparametric, permutation, and parametric tests for whether two independent groups differ in central location.
National 1-kilometer rasters of selected Census of Agriculture statistics allocated to land use for the time period 1950 to 2012
This dataset consists of a series of rasters covering the conterminous United States. Each raster is a one kilometer (km) grid for 18 selected Census of Agriculture statistics mapped to land use pixels for the time period 1950 to 2012. A supplemental set of 9 statistics mapped at the entire county level are also provided as 1-km rasters. The rasters are posted as ArcGIS grids. The statistics represent values for crops, livestock, irrigation, fertilizer, and manure usage. Most statistics are mapped for all 14 Census of Agriculture reporting years in that time frame: 1950, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, 1974, 1978, 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012.
A Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) model was developed to estimate annual recharge and evapotranspiration (ET) for Fauquier County, Virginia, for the period 1996 through 2015. The model was developed as part of a study to assess groundwater availability in the fractured-rock aquifers underlying Fauquier County. The model is documented in the associated report, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Scientific Investigations Report 2019-5056. The model was calibrated by comparing annual base-flow estimates from the hydrograph separation technique PART to annual recharge estimates from the SWB model for available years of streamflow record at two sites (01643700 and 01656000) within the model area. Selected SWB model parameters were...
Data release of Bathymetric Map, Surface Area, and Capacity of Grand Lake O' the Cherokees, Northeastern Oklahoma, 2019
The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Grand River Dam Authority completed a high-resolution multibeam bathymetric survey to compute a new capacity and surface-area table. The capacity and surface-area tables describe the relation between the elevation of the water surface and the volume of water that can be impounded at each given water-surface elevation. The capacity and surface area of Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees were computed from a Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) surface created in Global Mapper Version 21.0.1. The TIN surface was created from three datasets: (1) a multibeam bathymetric survey of Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees in 2019 (Hunter and others 2020), (2) a 2017 USGS bathymetric survey...
Abundance and Distribution of Fishes in the Northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, 2017-2018 (ver. 1.1, December 2019)
This dataset includes field data for fishes sampled using gill nets during daylight hours in the Northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA. This data release includes all measured environmental parameters and fish taxa included in the analysis. First posted - August 19, 2019 (available from author) Revised - December 18, 2019 (version 1.1)
The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a program of water-quality studies in San Francisco Bay (CA) that began in 1969. This U.S.G.S. Data Release is a continuation of the previously published 1969-2015 dataset (Cloern and Schraga, 2016; Schraga and Cloern, 2017), it will archive and make available all measurements from 2016 and thereafter. Each year, a data file containing the previous year’s data will be added. Water-quality constituent measurements include salinity, temperature, light attenuation coefficient, and concentrations of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, suspended particulate matter, and dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and silicate). The sampling is conducted at least...
Groundwater quality data were collected in 5,000 wells between 1988-2001 by the National Water-Quality Assessment Project. About 1,500 of these wells were sampled again between 2002-2012 to evaluate decadal changes in groundwater quality. Monitoring wells, domestic supply wells, and some public supply wells were included in this study. All water was collected prior to treatment. Groundwater samples used to evaluate decadal change were collected from networks of wells with similar characteristics. Some networks, consisting of domestic or public supply wells, were used to assess changes in the quality of groundwater used for drinking water supply. Other networks, consisting of monitoring wells, assessed changes in...
Environmental and Quality-Control Data Collected by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Project for Hormones and Pharmaceuticals in Groundwater Used as a Source of Drinking Water Across the United States, 2013-15
This data set includes results for hormone and pharmaceutical compounds analyzed in environmental and quality-control samples collected by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Project during 2013 through 2015 for a study of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply across the United States. Hormone and pharmaceutical results are provided for environmental samples collected at 1,120 wells or springs; selected ancillary data, such as principal aquifer, well depth, and land-use information also are provided for the sampled sites. The types of quality-control samples included in this data set are blanks, matrix spikes, and replicates collected at field sites or field offices. Included in this data...
Hydrograph-separation results for 225 streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed derived by using PART, HYSEP (Fixed, Local minimum, Slide), BFI, and a Recursive Digital Filter with streamflow data ranging from 1913 through 2016
This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data release contains daily-mean streamflow and estimated-daily base flow for 225 streamgages in the Chesapeake Bay watershed ranging from 1913 to 2016 (beginning and end dates may vary). There is a table containing hydrograph-separation results by six methods for 225 sites (Hydrograph_separation_results_for_225_streams_in_the_Chesapeake_Bay_watershed) and a summary table with hydrograph-separation results for each site and method (Hydrograph_separation_summary_for_225_streams_in_the_Chesapeake_Bay_watershed). Quantitative estimates of base flow are necessary to address questions of the vulnerability and response of aquatic ecosystems to natural and human-induced change in environmental...
Data on annual total nitrogen loads and watershed characteristics used to develop a method to estimate the total nitrogen loads in small streams
This USGS Data Release represents the data used to develop multiple linear regression models for estimating the loads of total nitrogen in small streams. Recursive partitioning and random forest regression were used to assess 85 geospatial, environmental, and watershed variables across 636 small (less than 585 square kilometers) watersheds to determine which variables are fundamentally important to the estimation of annual loads of total nitrogen. These data support the following publication: Kronholm, S.C., Capel, P.D., and Terziotti, Silvia, 2016, Statistically extracted fundamental watershed variables for estimating the loads of total nitrogen in small streams: Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 10 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10666-016-9525-3.
To determine aquifer characteristics, pneumatic slug tests were performed on selected zones and aquifers at a monitoring site near the North and South Belridge oil fields in the Southern San Joaquin Valley in Kern County. On November 19th and 20th, 2018, pneumatic slug tests were performed at five monitoring wells located at the multiple-well groundwater-monitoring site BWSD (28S/21E-08M1 through –M5) near Lost Hills, CA in the Southern San Joaquin Valley. Data were collected using In-Situ LevelTROLL 500 30psig pressure transducers set to record the depth to water level below land surface at one second intervals. Computations were performed using Aqtesolv software and analyzed using the KGS Model package for overdamped...
A three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model (3D HFM) of the westernmost western Snake River Plain (WSRP) aquifer system was prepared to represent the subsurface distribution and thickness of four hydrogeologic units. The primary source of data for the 3D HFM was lithologic data from a total of 291 well-driller reports. These data were then processed using Rockware Rockworks17 three-dimensional modeling software. This dataset consists of five comma-delineated CSV files containing well information: location, lithology, well construction, aquifer, and comments. It is one of three related datasets.
Electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods provide information about the bulk electrical conductivity of the subsurface. EM data has been widely used to investigate aquifers and geologic structures. In the following study, the United States Geological Survey conducted a boat-towed, waterborne transient electromagnetic (FloaTEM) survey to examine conductivity within the subsurface of the Delaware River channel. These conductive zones determine the location of the groundwater freshwater/saltwater interface within the Delaware River, downstream from Wilmington, DE. The FloaTEM system transmits a primary electrical current through a transmitter loop (Tx) wire. This creates a static primary magnetic field. Then, the current...
This dataset describes the quantity, morphology, concentration and polymer identity of microplastics in surficial benthic sediment of Lake Michigan and Lake Erie. Lake Michigan sediment samples were collected at 20 locations in September, 2013 and Lake Erie sediment samples were collected at 12 locations in September, 2014 while on-board the R.V. Lake Guardian. Sampling and analysis methods are described in the Processing Steps section of the metadata.
Exploring the exceptional performance of a deep learning stream temperature model and the value of streamflow data: 3 Model inputs
This data release component contains model inputs including river basin attributes, weather forcing data, and simulated and observed river discharge.
Evapotranspiration, Groundwater, and Unsaturated-Zone Data, Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada, 2011-13
This USGS Data Release supports USGS Scientific Investigations Report (SIR) 2017-5079. Following is the abstract from SIR 2017-5079: This report documents methodology and results of a study to evaluate groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration (GWET) in sparsely vegetated areas of Amargosa Desert and improve understanding of hydrologic-continuum processes controlling groundwater discharge. Evapotranspiration and GWET rates were computed and characterized at three sites over 2 years using a combination of micrometeorological, unsaturated zone, and stable-isotope measurements. One site (Amargosa Flat Shallow [AFS]) was in a sparse and isolated area of saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) where the depth to groundwater...
Water-quality data for groundwater samples collected from 4,824 sites between 1991 through 2018, and ancillary data and information on sampled wells and principal aquifers, were used to assess the occurrence and distribution of strontium in U.S. groundwater from 32 principal aquifers. This data release includes one tab-delimited text file detailing these data. Table: Chemical data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System and ancillary data considered for assessment of strontium concentration in U.S. groundwater.