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The proportion of an aquifer with constituent concentrations above a specified threshold (high concentrations) is taken as a nondimensional measure of regional scale water quality. If computed on the basis of area, it can be referred to as the aquifer scale proportion. A spatially unbiased estimate of aquifer scale proportion and a confidence interval for that estimate are obtained through the use of equal area grids and the binomial distribution. Traditionally, the confidence interval for a binomial proportion is computed using either the standard interval or the exact interval. Research from the statistics literature has shown that the standard interval should not be used and that the exact interval is overly...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Water Resources Research
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This report contains the major findings of a 1999-2001 assessment of water quality in the Santa Ana River Basin. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Circular
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Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin (Central Eastside) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Central Eastside study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality...
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The variables affecting the occurrence of hydrocarbons in aquifers used for public supply in California were assessed based on statistical evaluation of three large statewide datasets; gasoline oxygenates also were analyzed for comparison with hydrocarbons. Benzene is the most frequently detected (1.7%) compound among 17 hydrocarbons analyzed at generally low concentrations (median detected concentration 0.024 μg/l) in groundwater used for public supply in California; methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is the most frequently detected (5.8%) compound among seven oxygenates analyzed (median detected concentration 0.1 μg/l). At aquifer depths used for public supply, hydrocarbons and MTBE rarely co-occur and are generally...
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Corrosive groundwater, if untreated, can dissolve lead and other metals from pipes and other components in water distribution systems. Two indicators of potential corrosivity—the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) and the Potential to Promote Galvanic Corrosion (PPGC)—were used to identify which areas in the United States might be more susceptible to elevated concentrations of metals in household drinking water and which areas might be less susceptible. On the basis of the LSI, about one-third of the samples collected from about 21,000 groundwater sites are classified as potentially corrosive. On the basis of the PPGC, about two-thirds of the samples collected from about 27,000 groundwater sites are classified as...
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Chemical data from 43 334 wells were used to examine the role of land surface–soil–aquifer connections in producing elevated manganese concentrations (>300 μg/L) in United States (U.S.) groundwater. Elevated concentrations of manganese and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in groundwater are associated with shallow, anoxic water tables and soils enriched in organic carbon, suggesting soil-derived DOC supports manganese reduction and mobilization in shallow groundwater. Manganese and DOC concentrations are higher near rivers than farther from rivers, suggesting river-derived DOC also supports manganese mobilization. Anthropogenic nitrogen may also affect manganese concentrations in groundwater. In parts of the northeastern...
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Urban irrigation is an important component of the hydrologic cycle in many areas of the arid and semiarid western United States. This paper describes a new approach that uses readily available datasets to estimate the location and rate of urban irrigation. The approach provides a repeatable methodology at 1/3 km2 resolution across a large urbanized area (500 km2). For this study, Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery, air photos, climatic records, and a land-use map were used to: (1) identify the fraction of irrigated landscaping in urban areas, and (2) estimate the monthly rate of irrigation being applied to those areas. The area chosen for this study was the San Fernando Valley in Southern California. Identifying...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrology
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The California Aquifer Susceptibility Assessment of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program was developed to assess water quality and susceptibility of ground-water resources to contamination from surficial sources. This study focuses on the Mojave River and the Antelope Valley ground-water basins in southern California. Volatile organic compound (VOC) data were evaluated in conjunction with tritium data to determine a potential correlation with aquifer type, depth to top of perforations, and land use to VOC distribution and occurrence in the Mojave River and the Antelope Valley Basins. Detection frequencies for VOCs were compiled and compared to assess the distribution in each area. Explanatory...
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This report presents an evaluation of the occurrence and distribution of VOCs and pesticides in the Santa Ana ground-water basins in relation to two types of explanatory factors: hydrogeologic characteristics and land use. The Santa Ana Basin is subdivided into the San Jacinto, the Inland, and the Coastal ground-water basins. Most wells sampled were deep and used for public supply. Data from regional studies were used to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of pesticides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in relation to hydrogeologic characteristics and land uses that could potentially explain variations between basins. Additional data from special studies (flow path and aquifer susceptibility) were used...
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Study region California, USA. Study focus Identification of groundwater use is an important step in the regional-scale assessment of groundwater quality. In California, 1990 US Census data indicate that domestic wells provide drinking-water to about 1.2 million people. However, the location of these domestic well users of groundwater is poorly identified because the census tracts can be quite large (up to 20,000 km2). The purposes of this paper are to present methods used for (1) estimating the location of domestic wells, (2) estimating the location of households using domestic well water; and (3) identifying where in California groundwater is an important source of domestic drinking supply. New hydrological insights...
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Ten hydrogeologic provinces of California are represented by a region- class feature called 'provinces' within this digital data set. These provinces were identified and defined in the USGS Water Resource Investigation Report (WRIR) 03-4166 (Belitz and others, 2003) titled, 'Framework for a Ground-water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Plan for California'. Hydrogeologic provinces are generalized areas where hydrology and/or geology have similar characteristics. The Southern Cal Islands group was not previously defined as a province in WRIR 03-4166, and is therefore identified as a group in this dataset. These provinces were created by grouping polygons from two formally created digital data sets into respective...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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Ground-water samples were collected from 90 active public supply wells in the Fresno and Modesto metropolitan areas as part of the California Aquifer Susceptibility (CAS) program. The CAS program was formed to examine the susceptibility to contamination of aquifers that are tapped by public supply wells to serve the citizens of California. The objectives of the program are twofold: (1) to evaluate the quality of ground water used for public supply using volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in ground-water samples and (2) to determine if the occurrence and distribution of low level VOCs in ground water and characteristics, such as land use, can be used to predict aquifer susceptibility to contamination...
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The California Groundwater Units dataset classifies and delineates areas within the State of California into one of three groundwater-based polygon units: (1) those areas previously defined as alluvial groundwater basins or subbasins, (2) highland areas that are adjacent to and topographically upgradient of groundwater basins, and (3) highland areas not associated with a groundwater basin, only a hydrogeologic province. In total, 938 Groundwater Units are represented. The Groundwater Units dataset relates existing groundwater basins with their newly delineated highland areas which can be used in subsequent hydrologic studies. The methods used to delineate groundwater-basin-associated highland areas are similar to...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Data Series


    map background search result map search result map A remote sensing approach for estimating the location and rate of urban irrigation in semi-arid climates Statistical evaluation of variables affecting occurrence of hydrocarbons in aquifers used for public supply, California California Groundwater Units A remote sensing approach for estimating the location and rate of urban irrigation in semi-arid climates Statistical evaluation of variables affecting occurrence of hydrocarbons in aquifers used for public supply, California California Groundwater Units