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Summary Since the current use of fossil fuels (coal and oil) and nuclear fuels are either too costly or arise from nonrenewable fuel resources or result in too great an adverse environmental imapct, the search goes on for renewable, non-polluting and economical alternative energy sources. In this chapter I present potential alternate solutions to the use of fossil and nuclear fuels and the adverse environmental effects they create. The reader is urged to attempt to use any of these suggested alternatives in applications suitable to their particular situations.
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In this project on future sustainable transport alternatives a two-step search process has been followed. First an analysis of critical success and failure factors of new technological options in passenger transport is made. These factors are found in the spatial, institutional, economic and social/psychological environment of the transport system. Next, systematically structured and expert based scenarios are con- structed in order to achieve a sustainable transport system in the year 2030 in which possible, expected and desired developments in the distinct fields are analyzed. Finally some policy conclusions are drawn.
This article reflects the results of a study on sustainability of energy crops. Contribution to the reduction of the greenhouse effect and other environmental effects were investigated for the Netherlands. The study assumed that energy crops are grown on set aside or grain land. Generating electricity and/or heat from hemp, reed, miscanthus, poplar and willow have the best prospects. These crops are sustainable and may in the future be economically feasible. Ethanol from winter wheat has the most favourable environmental effects, but is economically not interesting. Liquid fuels from oil seed rape and sugar beet are not very sustainable.
Nitrogen (N) inputs to agricultural systems are important for their sustainability. However, when N inputs are unnecessarily high, the excess can contribute to greater agricultural N losses that impact air, surface water, and groundwater quality. It is paramount to reduce off-site transport of N by using sound management practices. These practices could potentially be integrated with water and air quality markets, and new tools will be necessary to calculate potential nitrogen savings available for trade. The USDA-NRCS and USDA-ARS Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit developed a web-based and stand-alone Nitrogen Trading Tool (NTT) prototype. These prototypes have an easy-to-use interface where nitrogen management...

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