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This dataset contains chemical and isotopic data from 39 produced water samples collected from sealed separators containing water from horizontal hydrocarbon wells in the lower Eagle Ford Group. The samples were collected from Lavaca and Gonzales counties, Texas in December, 2015. All wells had been in production for longer than 6 months and had produced more than 10,000 barrels (~160,000 liters) of water.
At recent technical conferences, many coal geoscientists in academia and government institutions as well as in industry organizations have expressed concern about the dwindling number of students and young staff members interested in careers in coal geoscience. To better understand what is driving these trends and to identify potential ways that the community can increase interest and participation in coal geoscience, two different surveys were sent to 94 coal geoscientists who were current or past members of The Society of Organic Petrology (TSOP) in February 2020. As the trends and perceptions in industry and government organizations may be different than in universities, one distinct survey was sent to members...
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To test if reflectance increases to sedimentary organic matter (vitrinite) caused by broad ion beam (BIB) milling were related to molecular aromatization and condensation, we used Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies to evaluate potential compositional changes in the same vitrinite locations pre- and post-BIB milling. The same locations also were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine topographic changes caused by BIB milling (as expressed by the areal root-mean-square roughness parameter Rq). Samples consisted of four medium volatile bituminous coals. We used a non-aggressive BIB milling approach with conditions of [(5 min, 4 keV, 15°incline, 360° rotation at 25 rpm and 100%...
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The organic composition of produced waters (flowback and formation waters) from the Bakken Formation and the Three Forks Formation in the Williston Basin, North Dakota were examined in this study in order to aid in the remediation of surface contamination due to spills during transport and help develop treatment methods for recycling. Twelve produced water samples were collected from wells in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations at the well head and analyzed for non-purgable dissolved organic carbon (NPDOC), acetate, and extractable hydrocarbons. NPDOC and acetate concentrations from sampled wells from ranged from 33-190 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and 16-40 mg/L, respectively. Concentrations of individual extractable...
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Inorganic compositions of flowback and co-produced waters from hydrocarbon extraction have been studied directly and through laboratory experiments that seek to replicate subsurface water-rock interaction. Here a broad analysis is made of compositions from the U.S. Geological Survey Produced Waters Database (v2.3) and leachates (water, hydrochloric acid, artificial brine) for 12 energy-resource related shales from across the United States. The database illustrates common ranges for 26 elements in 4 produced water types and enhanced solubility with increasing ionic strength is observed for Al, Ba, Fe, Li, Mn, Rb, Sr, and possibly 11 other elements. Differences are observed between laboratory leachates and produced...
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Recent production of light sweet oil from shallow (~2,000 ft) horizontal wells in the Upper Devonian Berea Sandstone of eastern Kentucky and historical oil production from conventional wells in the Berea of adjoining southern Ohio has prompted re-evaluation of Devonian petroleum systems in the central Appalachian Basin. Herein, we examined Upper Devonian Ohio Shale (lower Huron Member) and Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale organic-rich source rocks from eastern Ohio and nearby areas using organic petrography and geochemical analyses of solvent extracts. The data indicate the organic matter in the Ohio and Marcellus Shales was primarily derived from marine algae and its degradation products including bacterial biomass....
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The U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered unconventional hydrocarbon resources reservoired in the Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa marine shale (TMS) of southern Mississippi and adjacent Louisiana in 2018. As part of the assessment, oil- source rock correlations were examined in the study area where operators produce light (38-45° API), sweet oil from horizontal, hydraulically-fractured wells in an overpressured ‘high-resistivity’ (>5 ohm-m) zone (HRZ) at the base of the TMS. Our initial characterization of TMS samples indicated overall low organic carbon (avg. TOC ~1.0%) and dominance of a gas-prone Type III or mixed Type II/III kerogen, potentially inconsistent with a self-sourced petroleum system model for...
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For sample mounting, organic petrology laboratories typically use cold-setting epoxy-resin (e.g., 40°C, used by Oklahoma Geological Survey, OGS) or heat-setting plastic (e.g., 180°C, used by U.S. Geological Survey, USGS). Previous workers have suggested a systematic vitrinite reflectance (VRo) increase was associated with the thermoplastic preparation process, relative to epoxy mounting, which was attributed to moisture loss from the transient high temperatures of plastic mounting. In this study, we evaluated thermal effects to low maturity organic matter from transient exposure to elevated temperatures. A subbituminous coal sample was subjected to long-term (4 to 38 weeks) exposure to temperatures of 85 to 120°C...
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As part of a larger study, organic petrographic features of Leonardian Wolfcamp A repetitive siliceous and calcareous mudrock and fine-grained carbonate lithofacies cycles occurring in the R. Ricker #1 core from Reagan County, Midland Basin, Texas were evaluated. The objectives of the petrographic investigation were to estimate thermal maturity, identify organic matter types and abundances, and identify the presence or absence of migrated hydrocarbons. An integrated analytical program included geochemical screening [total organic carbon (TOC) content by LECO, programmed pyrolysis by HAWK, including from solvent-extracted samples], X-ray diffraction mineralogy, organic petrography, SEM-EDS including correlative light...
Note: this data release is currently being revised and is temporarily unavailable. This dataset covers Rock-Eval and reflectance data.
The nanoscale molecular composition of kerogen is a challenging parameter to characterize given the chemical and structural complexity exhibited by this important biopolymer. However, kerogen composition will strongly impact its reactivity and so is a critical parameter to understand petroleum generation processes during kerogen catagenesis. The recent advent of tip-enhanced analytical methods, such as atomic force microscopy-based infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR), has allowed for the major compositional features of kerogen to be elucidated at spatial resolutions at or below 50 nm. Here we apply AFM-IR to examine inertinite, an important kerogen maceral type, from an immature Eagle Ford Shale sample. Our data show...
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Solid bitumen is a petrographically-defined secondary organic matter residue produced during petroleum generation and subsequent oil transformation. The presence of solid bitumen impacts many shale reservoir properties including porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon generation and storage, amongst others. Furthermore, solid bitumen reflectance is an important parameter for assessing the thermal maturity of formations with little to no vitrinite. While the molecular composition of solid bitumen will strongly impact associated parameters such as the development of organic matter porosity, hydrocarbon generation, and optical reflectance, assessing the molecular composition of solid bitumen in situ within shale reservoirs...
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This study describes the application of organic petrology techniques to quantify the amount of coal and carbonaceous combustion by-products (i.e., coke, coal tar/pitch, cenospheres) in sediments taken from the Kinnickinnic River adjacent to the former site of the Milwaukee Solvay Coke and Gas Company. The site produced metallurgical coke and coal-gasification by-products from 1902-1983 and was assessed in 2001 as a potential Superfund site in part due to high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which readily absorb to coal and combustion by-products.
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Fluorescence spectroscopy via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to analyze ancient sedimentary organic matter, including Tasmanites microfossils in Devonian shale and Gloecapsomorpha prisca (G. prisca) in Ordovician kukersite from North American basins. We examined fluorescence emission as a function of excitation laser wavelength, sample orientation, and with respect to location within individual organic entities and along organic matter chemical transects. Results from spectral scans of the same field of view in Tasmanites with different laser lines showed progressive red-shift in emission maxima with longer excitation wavelengths. This result indicates steady-state Tasmanites fluorescence emission...
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In this study, organic petrology and Osmium isotope (187Os/188Os) stratigraphy, major and trace element, and programmed pyrolysis analysis were performed on five outcrop samples from western New York, USA. Seawater Os isotope composition is controlled by radiogenic input from weathering of the ancient land and nonradiogenic input from extraterrestrial and hydrothermal sources (Peucker-Ehrenbrink and Ravizza, 2000). Os is complexed by the organic matter present at the time of deposition without isotope fractionation. Seawater Os isotope composition is reconstructed by analysing the Os isotope composition of the organic-rich sedimentary rock (Turgeon et al., 2007). The short residence time of Os (10 – 50 kyrs) in...
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The dataset covers X-ray diffraction (XRD) applied for mineral determination in shales from the Utica, Excello, Niobrara, and Monterey formations. The XRD was performed prior to modified Rock-Eval pyrolysis, reflectance, organic petrology, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) being employed to analyze geochemical properties; gas adsorption (CO2 and N2) was used to characterize pore structures.
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Waters co-produced during petroleum extraction are the largest waste stream from oil and gas development. Reuse or disposal of these waters is difficult due both to their high salinities, which can greatly exceed 35 g/L (seawater equivalent), and also the sheer volume of wastewater generated, which is estimated at nearly 900 billion gallons per year across the United States. Beyond disposal concerns, produced water may also represent a possible source of valuable mineral commodities. While an understanding of the trace element composition of produced water is required for evaluating the associated resource and waste potential of these materials, measuring trace elements in high salinity brines is challenging due...
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This data matrix contains the codebook vectors for a 82 x 50 neuron Emergent Self-Organizing Map which describes the multivariate topology of reservoir temperature and geochemical data for 190 samples of produced and geothermal waters from across the United States. Variables included are coordinates derived from reservoir temperature and concentration of Sc, Nd, Pr, Tb, Lu, Gd, Tm, Ce, Yb, Sm, Ho, Er, Eu, Dy, F, alkalinity as bicarbonate, Si, B, Br, Li, Ba, Sr, sulfate, H (derived from pH), K, Mg, Ca, Cl, and Na converted to units of proportion. The concentration data were converted to isometric log-ratio coordinates (following Hron et al., 2010), where the first ratio is Sc serving as the denominator to the geometric...
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This data release contains 60 detrital zircon age spectra, based on U and Pb isotope ratio measurements for 9399 single grains. The samples are from Paleogene strata of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Of the 9399 single grain measurements, we recommend that 8640 yield ages that are suitable for construction of detrital zircon age spectra. Comments tagged to individual grains explain the reasoning for exclusion of a single grain measurement from age spectra, mostly including high discordance and/or uncertainty. The samples were collected along the strike of the U.S. Gulf Coast basin between western Alabama (the eastern U.S. Gulf Coast) and the Rio Grande river (the southwestern boundary of the U.S. Gulf Coast). The highest...
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The dataset covers Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) measurements taken from altered kerogen in shales from the Woodford formation. The ATR measurements were taken after the samples were run through supercritical CO2 alteration experiments in a brine solution.


map background search result map search result map U-Pb ages of detrital zircons in Paleogene strata of the Gulf Coast Codebook vectors from a trained emergent self-organizing map displaying multivariate topology of geochemical and reservoir temperature data from produced and geothermal waters of the United States Data release for Organic geochemistry and petrology of Devonian shale in eastern Ohio: implications for petroleum systems assessment (2018) Organic Petrography and Diagenesis of Leonardian Mudrocks and Carbonates, Midland Basin, Texas (2018) Chemical and isotopic composition of produced waters from the lower Eagle Ford Group, south-central Texas Enhanced wildfire at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary and its implications for O2 level and F-F mass extinction: evidence from organic petrology and Os isotope stratigraphy XRD data from study on the impact of thermal maturity on shale microstructures using hydrous pyrolysis (2018) Organic Analysis of Oilfield Produced Water from the Williston Basin, North Dakota ATR data from interaction of kerogen with brine-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) and its implications to geologic carbon sequestration and enhanced oil/gas recovery (2018) Oil-source rock correlation studies in the unconventional Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa marine shale petroleum system, Mississippi and Louisiana, USA (2019) Direct Trace Element Determination in Oil and Gas Produced Waters with Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES): Advantages of High Salinity Tolerance (2019) Sample mounting for organic petrology: no thermal effects from transient exposure to elevated temperatures (2019) Fluorescence spectroscopy of ancient sedimentary organic matter via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) Investigating the effects of broad ion beam milling to sedimentary organic matter Nanoscale Molecular Composition of Solid Bitumen from the Eagle Ford Group Across a Natural Thermal Maturity Gradient Organic petrographic evaluation of carbonaceous material in sediments of the Kinnickinnic River, Milwaukee, WI, U.S.A. Results of leaching experiments on 12 energy-related shales from the United States Atomic Force Microscopy-based Infrared Spectroscopy Data within Immature Eagle Ford Shale at the Nanometer-scale Results from surveys to academic and industry and government geoscientists on the future of coal geoscientists Maverick Basin Rock-Eval Data Organic Petrography and Diagenesis of Leonardian Mudrocks and Carbonates, Midland Basin, Texas (2018) Organic Analysis of Oilfield Produced Water from the Williston Basin, North Dakota Chemical and isotopic composition of produced waters from the lower Eagle Ford Group, south-central Texas Oil-source rock correlation studies in the unconventional Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa marine shale petroleum system, Mississippi and Louisiana, USA (2019) Organic petrographic evaluation of carbonaceous material in sediments of the Kinnickinnic River, Milwaukee, WI, U.S.A. ATR data from interaction of kerogen with brine-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) and its implications to geologic carbon sequestration and enhanced oil/gas recovery (2018) Data release for Organic geochemistry and petrology of Devonian shale in eastern Ohio: implications for petroleum systems assessment (2018) Atomic Force Microscopy-based Infrared Spectroscopy Data within Immature Eagle Ford Shale at the Nanometer-scale Maverick Basin Rock-Eval Data U-Pb ages of detrital zircons in Paleogene strata of the Gulf Coast Investigating the effects of broad ion beam milling to sedimentary organic matter Fluorescence spectroscopy of ancient sedimentary organic matter via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) XRD data from study on the impact of thermal maturity on shale microstructures using hydrous pyrolysis (2018) Results of leaching experiments on 12 energy-related shales from the United States Direct Trace Element Determination in Oil and Gas Produced Waters with Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES): Advantages of High Salinity Tolerance (2019) Sample mounting for organic petrology: no thermal effects from transient exposure to elevated temperatures (2019) Codebook vectors from a trained emergent self-organizing map displaying multivariate topology of geochemical and reservoir temperature data from produced and geothermal waters of the United States Results from surveys to academic and industry and government geoscientists on the future of coal geoscientists