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To test if reflectance increases to sedimentary organic matter (vitrinite) caused by broad ion beam (BIB) milling were related to molecular aromatization and condensation, we used Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies to evaluate potential compositional changes in the same vitrinite locations pre- and post-BIB milling. The same locations also were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine topographic changes caused by BIB milling (as expressed by the areal root-mean-square roughness parameter Rq). Samples consisted of four medium volatile bituminous coals. We used a non-aggressive BIB milling approach with conditions of [(5 min, 4 keV, 15°incline, 360° rotation at 25 rpm and 100%...
At recent technical conferences, many coal geoscientists in academia and government institutions as well as in industry organizations have expressed concern about the dwindling number of students and young staff members interested in careers in coal geoscience. To better understand what is driving these trends and to identify potential ways that the community can increase interest and participation in coal geoscience, two different surveys were sent to 94 coal geoscientists who were current or past members of The Society of Organic Petrology (TSOP) in February 2020. As the trends and perceptions in industry and government organizations may be different than in universities, one distinct survey was sent to members...
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Several canals in southern Florida run from Lake Okeechobee through the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) and feed water to the northern Everglades. Agricultural and water-management practices affect the water quality of these canals. Fertilizers added in the EAA flow into the canals and are transported to treatment areas which remove much of the phosphorous in the water, but are not as effective in removing dissolved sulfate. Elevated sulfate concentrations, found downstream in the Water Conservation Areas in the northern Everglades, can stimulate sulfur-reducing bacteria which can also convert inorganic mercury to methyl mercury, a bioaccumulative neurotoxin. Chemistry data at 25 canal sites in southern Florida...
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Inorganic compositions of flowback and co-produced waters from hydrocarbon extraction have been studied directly and through laboratory experiments that seek to replicate subsurface water-rock interaction. Here a broad analysis is made of compositions from the U.S. Geological Survey Produced Waters Database (v2.3) and leachates (water, hydrochloric acid, artificial brine) for 12 energy-resource related shales from across the United States. The database illustrates common ranges for 26 elements in 4 produced water types and enhanced solubility with increasing ionic strength is observed for Al, Ba, Fe, Li, Mn, Rb, Sr, and possibly 11 other elements. Differences are observed between laboratory leachates and produced...
A mineral resource assessment for tungsten, a critical mineral commodity (see 'Related External Resources' section below) for the United States, was carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for a portion of the Great Basin region, in western Nevada and eastern California, between latitudes 36N and 42N and longitudes 116W and 120W. This study (Lederer and others, in review) integrates data from several sources, including geologic, geochemical, geophysical, remote sensing, watershed analysis, and mining with recently developed grade and tonnage models, expert estimates, and software tools and analyses to generate probabilistic estimates of undiscovered tungsten skarn resources. The assessment was conducted...
Stable hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and sulfur (S) isotope data were collected from the Elizabeth copper mine Superfund site, South Strafford, Vermont. Sample media include surface water (H and O), groundwater (H and O), dissolved sulfate (O and S), and sulfide minerals in bulk mill tailings samples. Where available, supporting data for water samples include discharge, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved sulfate concentration. The water samples span a time period from August 1998 to October 2009.
Acetylene (C2H2) is a molecule rarely found in nature, with few known natural sources, but acetylenotrophic microorganisms can use acetylene as their primary carbon and energy source. As of 2018 there were 15 known strains of aerobic and anaerobic acetylenotrophs, however we hypothesized that there may be yet unrecognized diversity of acetylenotrophs in nature. In this study, we expanded this diversity by isolating an aerobic acetylenotroph, Bradyrhizobium sp. strain I71, from TCE-contaminated soils undergoing bioremediation. TCE-contaminated soils from the NASA Ames Research Center in California were used to establish soil microcosms with acetylene as the primary carbon substrate and acetylene uptake was tracked...
The nanoscale molecular composition of kerogen is a challenging parameter to characterize given the chemical and structural complexity exhibited by this important biopolymer. However, kerogen composition will strongly impact its reactivity and so is a critical parameter to understand petroleum generation processes during kerogen catagenesis. The recent advent of tip-enhanced analytical methods, such as atomic force microscopy-based infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR), has allowed for the major compositional features of kerogen to be elucidated at spatial resolutions at or below 50 nm. Here we apply AFM-IR to examine inertinite, an important kerogen maceral type, from an immature Eagle Ford Shale sample. Our data show...
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The tables in this data release provide measures of quality for each of 304,643 records in the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) database, located at https://mrdata.usgs.gov/mrds/ describing mineral resources worldwide but focusing on those located in the United States. One table provides the measures of quality, the other provides the overall record scores that may be used to sort records by overall quality. MRDS is distributed from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in several different formats for the convenience of a variety of different users. For example a flattened version of the database is available in which the one-to-many relationships in MRDS are suppressed by combining them into a single field, resulting...
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Solid bitumen is a petrographically-defined secondary organic matter residue produced during petroleum generation and subsequent oil transformation. The presence of solid bitumen impacts many shale reservoir properties including porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon generation and storage, amongst others. Furthermore, solid bitumen reflectance is an important parameter for assessing the thermal maturity of formations with little to no vitrinite. While the molecular composition of solid bitumen will strongly impact associated parameters such as the development of organic matter porosity, hydrocarbon generation, and optical reflectance, assessing the molecular composition of solid bitumen in situ within shale reservoirs...
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This study describes the application of organic petrology techniques to quantify the amount of coal and carbonaceous combustion by-products (i.e., coke, coal tar/pitch, cenospheres) in sediments taken from the Kinnickinnic River adjacent to the former site of the Milwaukee Solvay Coke and Gas Company. The site produced metallurgical coke and coal-gasification by-products from 1902-1983 and was assessed in 2001 as a potential Superfund site in part due to high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which readily absorb to coal and combustion by-products.
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Waters co-produced during petroleum extraction are the largest waste stream from oil and gas development. Reuse or disposal of these waters is difficult due both to their high salinities, which can greatly exceed 35 g/L (seawater equivalent), and also the sheer volume of wastewater generated, which is estimated at nearly 900 billion gallons per year across the United States. Beyond disposal concerns, produced water may also represent a possible source of valuable mineral commodities. While an understanding of the trace element composition of produced water is required for evaluating the associated resource and waste potential of these materials, measuring trace elements in high salinity brines is challenging due...
The USGS Gulf Coast Source Rock Database (GCSRD) is an online repository for all publicly available source rock data (outcrop and subsurface) from the states of Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas. "Source rock data" are defined in this context as data that include any of the following measured or calculated parameters: - Total organic carbon (TOC) - Various pyrolysis measurements (Tmax, S1, S2, S3, HI, OI) - Vitrinite or bitumen reflectance values All data in the GCSRD have been extracted from previously published peer-reviewed literature or as USGS-released data sets; no new measurements are included. The underlying data set is presented as an interactive, map-view...
The USGS assessment and methodology reports cited within this software release require extensive processing using computational methods and modeling. The most demanding aspects of the modeling were performed using publicly available software: SGeMS and GSLIB (See the 'Related External Resources' section on this webpage to learn more about this software). This publication releases the FORTRAN source code of 15 supplementary computer programs that are required to perform the more specific aspects of the modeling. Upon downloading a program, the user needs to use a FORTRAN compiler for generating the executable code. The tasks performed by these FORTRAN programs are: • blankgridsis, for blanking of several realizations...
This data release contains programmed pyrolysis, organic petrographic (reflectance), and semiquantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogy data for subsurface coal and shale samples from around the world. Samples were subjected to hydrous or anhydrous pyrolysis experiments at varying temperatures and the resulting residues were analyzed via programmed pyrolysis and reflectance to document changes in thermal maturity.
Categories: Data; Tags: Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Australia, Bihar, All tags...
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This dataset contains compositional data on 17 produced water samples from hydraulically fractured unconventional oil wells completed in the Middle Bakken and Three Forks Formations. The oil wells are located in five different wellfields across the Williston Basin. Specific gravity, conductivity, temperature, pH and oxidation-reduction potential for each sample was measured in the field. Ions (B, Li, Cl, Na, Br), biomarkers (Pristane /n-C17 and Phytane /n-C18), glycol ether compounds, major ions, as well as radium (Ra-228/Ra-226), boron (δ11B), oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H) isotopic ratios were analyzed in the lab. Well profiles are provided to increase understanding of the produced waters compositions in the...
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Citation Note: These data were collected as part of a research study published in Environmental Science and Technology. Please reference the following paper when citing these data. Blondes, M.S., Shelton, J.L., Engle, M.A., Trembly, J.P., Doolan, C.A., Jubb, A.M., Chenault, J.M., Rowan, E.L., Haefner, R.J., and Mailot, B.E., 2020, Utica Shale Play Oil and Gas Brines: Geochemistry and Factors Influencing Wastewater Management: Environmental Science & Technology, https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c02461. The Utica and Marcellus Shale Plays in the Appalachian Basin are the 4th and 1st largest natural gas producing plays in the United States. Hydrocarbon production generates large volumes of brine (“produced water”)...
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This worksheet displays the results of mineral abundance estimates based on Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of mill tailings and other ore processing materials from worldwide localities. Data are also provided to show variation in mineral abundance estimates for subsplits in individual samples. Samples were analyzed using a PANalytical X'Pert Pro diffractometer using Cu radiation and the results interpreted using Highscore Plus v.4.7.


map background search result map search result map Estimates of mineral abundances based on Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data from mill tailings and other ore processing materials Record quality tables for the Mineral Resources Data System Petroleum geology data from hydrous and anhydrous pyrolysis residues for coals and shales from the Cambrian through the Miocene Direct Trace Element Determination in Oil and Gas Produced Waters with Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES): Advantages of High Salinity Tolerance (2019) Investigating the effects of broad ion beam milling to sedimentary organic matter Chemistry Data from Southern Florida Canals Collected in Support of the Aquatic Cycling of Mercury in the Everglades Project Nanoscale Molecular Composition of Solid Bitumen from the Eagle Ford Group Across a Natural Thermal Maturity Gradient Geochemistry of Utica Shale Play and other Appalachian produced waters Tungsten skarn mineral resource assessment of the Great Basin region of western Nevada and eastern California—Simulation results Organic petrographic evaluation of carbonaceous material in sediments of the Kinnickinnic River, Milwaukee, WI, U.S.A. Tungsten skarn mineral resource assessment of the Great Basin region of western Nevada and eastern California - Geodatabase Results of leaching experiments on 12 energy-related shales from the United States Atomic Force Microscopy-based Infrared Spectroscopy Data within Immature Eagle Ford Shale at the Nanometer-scale Data on Produced Water Quality and Quantities from Hydraulically Fractured Williston Basin Oil Wells USGS Gulf Coast Source Rock Database Results from surveys to academic and industry and government geoscientists on the future of coal geoscientists Environmental (hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur) stable isotope data from the Elizabeth copper mine Superfund site, Vermont, USA Data on the Enrichment and Isolation of the Acetylenotrophic and Diazotrophic Isolate Bradyrhizobium sp. strain I71 Data on the Enrichment and Isolation of the Acetylenotrophic and Diazotrophic Isolate Bradyrhizobium sp. strain I71 Environmental (hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur) stable isotope data from the Elizabeth copper mine Superfund site, Vermont, USA Organic petrographic evaluation of carbonaceous material in sediments of the Kinnickinnic River, Milwaukee, WI, U.S.A. Data on Produced Water Quality and Quantities from Hydraulically Fractured Williston Basin Oil Wells Tungsten skarn mineral resource assessment of the Great Basin region of western Nevada and eastern California—Simulation results Tungsten skarn mineral resource assessment of the Great Basin region of western Nevada and eastern California - Geodatabase Atomic Force Microscopy-based Infrared Spectroscopy Data within Immature Eagle Ford Shale at the Nanometer-scale Geochemistry of Utica Shale Play and other Appalachian produced waters Investigating the effects of broad ion beam milling to sedimentary organic matter USGS Gulf Coast Source Rock Database Results of leaching experiments on 12 energy-related shales from the United States Direct Trace Element Determination in Oil and Gas Produced Waters with Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES): Advantages of High Salinity Tolerance (2019) Petroleum geology data from hydrous and anhydrous pyrolysis residues for coals and shales from the Cambrian through the Miocene Results from surveys to academic and industry and government geoscientists on the future of coal geoscientists Estimates of mineral abundances based on Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data from mill tailings and other ore processing materials Record quality tables for the Mineral Resources Data System