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We assess different policy options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies: (1) a carbon emissions price, (2) a generation subsidy for renewable energy, (3) a tax on fossil fuel generated energy, (4) a portfolio (market share) requirement for renewable energy sources, (5) a tradable performance standard for the emissions intensity of all generation, and (6) a subsidy for R&D investment in renewable energy technology. We evaluate the relative performance of the different policies according to different potential goals: emissions reduction, renewable energy production, R&D, and welfare. We also assess how the nature of technological progress—whether...
The article discusses a report published by the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) that examined the technical feasibility of using wind energy for electricity generation. The report assessed the costs, impacts and challenges associated with the production of 20% wind energy by 2030. Results have shown that there is a need for an enhanced transmission infrastructure and an increase in turbine installations to achieve 20% wind energy.
This paper estimates the extra costs of drilling for oil and gas on federal land as compared to private land in the Wyoming Checkerboard. The Checkerboard is a center of U.S. oil and gas activity in which square-mile sections of property alternate between federal and private ownership as originally established by the Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864. This land ownership pattern is used as an experimental control that may be used to identify differences in drilling cost on federal and private land. Estimates presented suggest that average drilling costs per well are about $200,000 higher on federal property than on private property. This difference is attributed to more stringent enforcement of environmental...
State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the...
Bedded trona (Na2CO=-NaHCO=.214,0) in the lacustrine Green River Formation of Eocene age in the Green River Basin, southwest Wyomin~ constitutes the largest known resource of natural sodium carbonate in the world, in this study, 116 gigatons (Gt) of trona ore are estimated to be present in 22 beds, ranging from 1.2 to 11 meters (m) in thickness. Of this total, 69 Gt of trona ore are estimated to be in beds containing less than 2 percent halite and 47 Gt in beds containing 2 or more percent halite. These 22 beds underlie areas of about 130 to more than 2,000 km: at depths ranging from about 200 m to more than 900 m below the surface. The total resource of trona ore in the basin for which drilling Information is available...