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Vegetation and land-cover changes are not always directional but follow complex trajectories over space and time, driven by changing anthropogenic and abiotic conditions. We present a multi-observational approach to land-change analysis that addresses the complex geographic and temporal variability of vegetation changes related to climate and land use. Using land-ownership data as a proxy for land-use practices, multitemporal land-cover maps, and repeat photography dating to the late 19th century, we examine changing spatial and temporal distributions of two vegetation types with high conservation value in the southwestern United States: grasslands and riparian vegetation. In contrast to many reported vegetation...
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The data set includes delineation of sampling strata for the six study reaches of the UMRR Program’s LTRM element. Separate strata coverages exist for each of the three monitoring components (fish, vegetation, and water quality) to meet the differing sampling needs among components. Generally, the sampling strata consist of main channel, side channel, backwater, and impounded areas. The fish component further delineates a “shoreline” portion of the strata to be used for sampling gears deployed only along the shoreline. The data are raster in origin, with the center of each pixel representing the sampling location. Cell size is typically 50 meters, although several water quality strata are at 200 meter cell size.
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The frequency and severity of flooding in the Upper Mississippi River Basin is influenced by three major factors: the amount and timing of precipitation, the condition of the basin's stream channels and floodplains, and the timing and rate of storm water conveyance off the watershed, which is a function of soil condition, extent of impervious surface, vegetation density, and other factors. To the extent that changing precipitation patterns result from human-caused changes in the global climate, this factor can be addressed through international efforts to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Careful planning and design can provide some control over the condition of channels, floodplains, and watersheds. The primary...
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Macrophyte populations have recently decreased in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). This decline may be due to abiotic factors, such as a reduction in nutrients; however, biotic factors are also suspect. The common carp Cyprinus carpio has been reported to affect submerged macrophyte populations in other systems but not in the UMR. This study was conducted to determine if common carp can directly or indirectly reduce submerged macrophyte biomass. Twelve enclosures (25 m2) and four reference sites were constructed in Lawrence Lake, a backwater in the UMR, and stocked with one of three densities (0, 1, 10) of common carp. High densities of common carp (10/enclosure or approximately 7000 kg/ha) significantly reduced...
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A depth-integrated finite-element model (RMA-2V) was applied on a section of the Upper Mississippi River to study the hydraulic characteristics of the floodplain-river system. The area that has been modeled is called "Montrose Flats." Aquatic vegetation is abundant at this location, and the flow structure needs to be evaluated in order to study the nutrient transport conditions within this area. The present study focused on a large oval eddy that was observed to form in this area near the downstream end of the Devil's Creek delta. Causative factors for this eddy were examined by using this numerical model. Results indicate that the eddy can be simulated by this model and that numerical study is a feasible way to...
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This tutorial was prepared for field personnel in the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) for the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) and other river managers who use Environmental Planning and Programming Language version 7 (EPPL7). The data sets included in the tutorial are from the LTRMP geographic information system (GIS) data base, and the exercises cover frequently used GIS procedures.
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The Aquatic Habitat Analysis and Visualization Tool is a program and interface that allows users to view and create habitat models using the pre-improvement water quality data collected for the Finger Lakes Habitat Rehabilitation Project (HREP). The Finger Lakes HREP is a hydrologic modification of a backwater lake complex in upper Pool 5 of the Mississippi River. The program and interface were implemented using Arc Macro Language and require the workstation version of ARC/INFO geographic information system software (ESRI, Redlands, CA).
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This chapter describes the procedures for digital data entry to be used by the staff at the Environmental Management Technical Center. Included are procedures for creating a coverage, registering a base map, digitizing with an automated program (Production ARCEDIT), generating topology for a coverage, and attributing. The two main issues during this procedure are digitizing error and quality control. The Appendixes contain forms and other information needed for the digital data entry procedure.
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Since 1988, the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) has performed basic limnological field measurements in the Upper Mississippi River System. The period of this report (1993 96) includes a major revision of the LTRMP sampling design in 1993 that added randomization, broader spatial coverage, and increased monitoring of tributaries and locations that allow monitoring of material transport. Monitoring by the Lake City Field Station reported here shows water quality differences among the tributaries to Pools 4 and 5, spatial and temporal patterns within these pools, and the sediment and nutrient trapping effects of Lake Pepin, a natural impoundment of the Mississippi River.
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Synopsis: This article outlines how wetlands can significantly reduce flooding in the Upper Mississippi watershed. The authors first provide a historical context by estimating the original and lost wetland storage capacities of the Upper Mississippi and Missouri River Basins. Historically, about 10% of the basin would have been classified as wetland in 1780. By 1980, wetland acreage had been reduced to only 4% of the basin, representing about 26 million acres of wetlands eliminated since 1780. The area of wetland restoration required to reduce the risk of future flooding adequately was estimated based on the total amount of excess floodwater beyond bank-full discharge that passed through the City of St. Louis during...
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Hydraulic functions of retention devices in natural large rivers have been studied. An evaluation of detention devices formed due to side channels, islands, backwaters, and stump fields within the Upper Mississippi Pools has shown that these are quite significant and in some cases these detention areas within the channel borders can occupy as much as 75 to 93% of the total surface area. A large eddy on the order of the width of the Mississippi River in Pool 19 is used to illustrate the travel time in the hydraulic retention areas.
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The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the north-central U.S. and south-central Canada contains millions of small prairie wetlands that provide critical habitat to many migrating and breeding waterbirds. Due to their small size and the relatively dry climate of the region, these wetlands are considered at high risk for negative climate change effects as temperatures increase. To estimate the potential impacts of climate change on breeding waterbirds, we predicted current and future distributions of species common in the PPR using species distribution models (SDMs). We created regional-scale SDMs for the U.S. PPR using Breeding Bird Survey occurrence records for 1971–2011 and wetland, upland, and climate variables....
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One of the greatest challenges facing the Wyoming Game and Fish Department (WGFD) in the 21st century will be our ability to maintain sustainable fish and wildlife populations and meet the expectations and desire of our citizens. We approach habitat conservation and management on a landscape/watershed scale based on the needs of all fish and wildlife and citizens who either enjoy and/or depend on wildlife, and the land and water resources of the State. This requires a great deal of teamwork and a broader view of our responsibilities. Addressing habitat needs and issues that seek to maintain open spaces, non-fragmented, quality habitats and the ability of fish and wildlife to utilize these areas provides an opportunity...
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Weed shiners are listed as endangered in Iowa. In the spring of 1990, one weed shiner (Notropis texanus) was collected from the Crooked Slough Complex, Pool 13 (river mile 554.3) of the Upper Mississippi River System. Prior to this study, there is no record of weed shiners collected in Pool 13. After the initial collection, a follow-up search for weed shiners was undertaken during fall 1990, and during late summer and fall 1991, to estimate relative abundance at this site. The Crooked Slough collection site was seined on three separate occasions, and 1,840 fish were collected. No additional weed shiners were captured. Therefore, the collection efforts do not support the hypothesis that the Crooked Slough collection...


map background search result map search result map Flood reduction through wetand restoration: the Upper Mississippi River Basin as a case history. Strategic Habitat Plan Annual Report - 2007 1988 Operating Plan of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program for the Upper Mississippi River System Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of a reach of the Mississippi River in Pool 19 to GIS - Using EPPL7 on a microcomputer The status of the weed shiner (Notropis texanus) in Pool 13 of the Upper Mississippi River Hydraulic retention devices in the Middle and Upper Mississippi River Geospatial application:  Aquatic habitat analysis and visualization tool Long Term Resource Monitoring Program standard operating procedures:  Production ARCEDIT digitizing Effects of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) on submerged macrophytes and water quality in a backwater lake on the Upper Mississippi River A natural storage approach for flood damage reduction and environmental enhancement Unusual coloration in a red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta elegans Limnological monitoring on the Upper  Mississippi River System, 1993 1996: Lake City Field Station Recent observations of the distribution and status of freckled madtom and first record of spotted gar In Iowa Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Procedures: Water quality monitoring Comparing the effects of local, landscape, and temporal factors on forest bird nest survival using logistic-exposure models The long-term resource monitoring program: insights into the Asian carp invasion of the Illinois River, Illinois, USA Historical and Contemporary Geographic Data Reveal Complex Spatial and Temporal Responses of Vegetation to Climate and Land Stewardship LTRM Water Quality Sampling Strata Vulnerability of Breeding Waterbirds to Climate Change in the Prairie Pothole Region The status of the weed shiner (Notropis texanus) in Pool 13 of the Upper Mississippi River Limnological monitoring on the Upper  Mississippi River System, 1993 1996: Lake City Field Station Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of a reach of the Mississippi River in Pool 19 Historical and Contemporary Geographic Data Reveal Complex Spatial and Temporal Responses of Vegetation to Climate and Land Stewardship Recent observations of the distribution and status of freckled madtom and first record of spotted gar In Iowa The long-term resource monitoring program: insights into the Asian carp invasion of the Illinois River, Illinois, USA LTRM Water Quality Sampling Strata Strategic Habitat Plan Annual Report - 2007 1988 Operating Plan of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program for the Upper Mississippi River System Flood reduction through wetand restoration: the Upper Mississippi River Basin as a case history. to GIS - Using EPPL7 on a microcomputer Hydraulic retention devices in the Middle and Upper Mississippi River Geospatial application:  Aquatic habitat analysis and visualization tool Long Term Resource Monitoring Program standard operating procedures:  Production ARCEDIT digitizing Effects of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) on submerged macrophytes and water quality in a backwater lake on the Upper Mississippi River A natural storage approach for flood damage reduction and environmental enhancement Unusual coloration in a red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta elegans Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Procedures: Water quality monitoring Comparing the effects of local, landscape, and temporal factors on forest bird nest survival using logistic-exposure models Vulnerability of Breeding Waterbirds to Climate Change in the Prairie Pothole Region