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Copiapite-group minerals of the general formula AR4(SO4)6(OH)2·nH2O, where A is predominantly Mg, Fe2+, or 0.67Al3+, R is predominantly Fe3+, and n is typically 20, are among several secondary hydrous Fe sulfates occurring in the inactive mine workings of the massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, CA, a USEPA Superfund site that produces extremely acidic drainage. Samples of copiapite-group minerals, some with coexisting water, were collected from the Richmond mine. Approximately 200 mL of brownish pore water with a pH of −0.9 were extracted through centrifugation from a 10-L sample of moist copiapite-group minerals taken from pyritic muck piles. The pore water is extremely rich in ferric iron (Fe3+=149 g L−1,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Chemical Geology
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Diel variations of concentrations of unfiltered and filtered total Hg and filtered methyl Hg were documented during 24-h sampling episodes in water from Silver Creek, which drains a historical gold-mining district near Helena, Montana, and the Madison River, which drains the geothermal system of Yellowstone National Park. The concentrations of filtered methyl Hg had relatively large diel variations (increases of 68 and 93% from morning minima) in both streams. Unfiltered and filtered (0.1-μm filtration) total Hg in Silver Creek had diel concentration increases of 24% and 7%, respectively. In the Madison River, concentrations of unfiltered and filtered total Hg did not change during the sampling period. The concentration...
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Wildfires occur frequently in the Colorado Front Range and can alter the hydrological response of watersheds, yet little information exists on the impact of flow regime and storm events on post-wildfire water quality. The flow regime in the region is characterized by base-flow conditions during much of the year and increased runoff during spring snowmelt and summer convective storms. The impact of snowmelt and storm events on stream discharge and water quality was evaluated for about a year after a wildfire near Boulder, Colorado, USA. During spring snowmelt and low-intensity storms, differences in discharge and turbidity at sites upstream and downstream from the burned areas were minimal. However, high-intensity...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: IAHS Red Book
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Water analyses are reported for ground and surface waters collected at 33 sites on and near Ester Dome, Fairbanks area, central Alaska during 2000-2001. This interdisciplinary study focused on documenting the temporal and spatial chemical variations in arsenic concentrations to elucidate the processes that lead to elevated arsenic concentrations in ground water. Field parameters and water analyses are reported for 17 domestic wells, 13 monitoring well sites, and 3 surface water sites. Sampling occurred during November 2000, February 2001, May 2001, July 2001, and September 2001. Waters in the study area are primarily Ca-HCO3 type, with pH values ranging from 5.97 to 7.87. Dissolved arsenic concentrations ranged...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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Water samples were collected approximately every two weeks during the spring of 2010 from the Level 1 portal of the Standard Mine and from two locations on Elk Creek. The objective of the sampling was to: (1) better define the expected range and timing of variations in pH and metal concentrations in Level 1 discharge and Elk Creek during spring runoff; and (2) further evaluate possible mechanisms controlling water quality during spring runoff. Samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen (oxygen-18 and deuterium). The Level 1 portal sample and one of the Elk Creek samples (EC-CELK1) were collected from the same locations as samples taken in the spring...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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Explanations for the lack of acid geothermal springs in Tibet are inferred from a comprehensive hydrochemical comparison of Tibetan geothermal waters with those discharged from Yellowstone (USA) and two active volcanic areas, Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) and Miravalles (Costa Rica) where acid springs are widely distributed and diversified in terms of geochemical characteristic and origin. For the hydrothermal areas investigated in this study, there appears to be a relationship between the depths of magma chambers and the occurrence of acid, chloride-rich springs formed via direct magmatic fluid absorption. Nevado del Ruiz and Miravalles with magma at or very close to the surface (less than 1–2 km) exhibit very acidic...
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Boiling River at Mammoth (YBOI), Yellowstone National Park Sample Collection: Samples were collected near the USGS stream gage 06190540 (Latitude 44°59'05.83", Longitude 110°41'18.20" NAD83). At the time of collection, all waters samples were filtered through a syringe filter (0.45-micrometer). Two splits of the filtered water were retained for chemical analyses, including an unacidified (FU) sample for determination of anion concentrations and a nitric acid preserved (FA; 1% volume-to-volume concentrated trace-metal grade nitric acid) sample for cation and trace metal analyses. During sample collection, the water temperature, specific conductance, and pH were often measured. Sample Analyses: Concentrations...
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Falls River near Squirrel, Idaho (YFAL) Sample Collection: Samples were collected near the USGS stream gage 13046995 (Latitude 44°03'43", Longitude 111°09'07" NAD83). At the time of collection, all waters samples were filtered through a syringe filter (0.45-micrometer). Two splits of the filtered water were retained for chemical analyses, including an unacidified (FU) sample for determination of anion concentrations and a nitric acid preserved (FA; 1% volume-to-volume concentrated trace-metal grade nitric acid) sample for cation and trace metal analyses. During sample collection, the water temperature, specific conductance, and pH were often measured. Sample Analyses: Concentrations of chloride, fluoride,...
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Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in 918 wells sampled throughout California between 2004 and 2012 by the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment-Priority Basin Project (GAMA-PBP) ranged from less than the study reporting limit of 1 microgram per liter (μg/L) to 32 μg/L. Statewide, Cr(VI) was reported in 31 percent of wells and equaled or exceeded the recently established (2014) California Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for Cr(VI) of 10 μg/L in 4 percent of wells. Cr(VI) data collected for regulatory purposes overestimated Cr(VI) occurrence compared to spatially-distributed GAMA-PBP data. Ninety percent of chromium was present as Cr(VI), which was detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in alkaline...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Applied Geochemistry
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Mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrathioarsenate, as well as methylated arsenic oxy- and thioanions, were determined besides arsenite and arsenate in geothermal waters of Yellowstone National Park using anion-exchange chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Retention time match with synthetic standards, measured S:As ratios, and molecular electrospray mass spectra support the identification. Acidification was unsuitable for arsenic species preservation in sulfidic waters, with HCl addition causing loss of total dissolved arsenic, presumably by precipitation of arsenic-sulfides. Flash-freezing is preferred for the preservation of arsenic species for several weeks. After thawing, samples must be analyzed...
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Yellowstone River at Corwin Springs, MT (YYCR) Sample Collection: Samples were collected near the USGS stream gage 06191500 (Latitude 45°06'43.63", Longitude 110°47'37.20" NAD83). At the time of collection, all waters samples were filtered through a syringe filter (0.45-micrometer). Two splits of the filtered water were retained for chemical analyses, including an unacidified (FU) sample for determination of anion concentrations and a nitric acid preserved (FA; 1% volume-to-volume concentrated trace-metal grade nitric acid) sample for cation and trace metal analyses. During sample collection, the water temperature, specific conductance, and pH were often measured. Sample Analyses: Concentrations of chloride,...
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The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund site in California is a prime example of an acid mine drainage (AMD) system with well developed assemblages of sulfate minerals typical for such settings. Here we present and discuss the vibrational (infrared), X-ray absorption, and Mössbauer spectra of a number of these phases, augmented by spectra of a few synthetic sulfates related to the AMD phases. The minerals and related phases studied in this work are (in order of increasing Fe2O3/FeO): szomolnokite, rozenite, siderotil, halotrichite, römerite, voltaite, copiapite, monoclinic Fe2(SO4)3, Fe2(SO4)3·5H2O, kornelite, coquimbite, Fe(SO4)(OH), jarosite and rhomboclase. Fourier transform infrared spectra in the region 750–4000 cm−1...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Chemical Geology
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Published literature on preservation procedures for stabilizing aqueous inorganic As(III/V) redox species contains discrepancies. This study critically evaluates published reports on As redox preservation and explains discrepancies in the literature. Synthetic laboratory preservation experiments and time stability experiments were conducted for natural water samples from several field sites. Any field collection procedure that filters out microorganisms, adds a reagent that prevents dissolved Fe and Mn oxidation and precipitation, and isolates the sample from solar radiation will preserve the As(III/V) ratio. Reagents that prevent Fe and Mn oxidation and precipitation include HCl, H 2SO4, and EDTA, although extremely...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Applied Geochemistry
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Diel (24 hr) cycles in dissolved metal and As concentrations have been documented in many northern Rocky Mountain streams in the U.S.A. The cause(s) of the cycles are unknown, although temperature- and pH-dependent sorption reactions have been cited as likely causes. A light/dark experiment was conducted to isolate temperature and pH as variables affecting diel metal cycles in Prickly Pear Creek, Montana. Light and dark chambers containing sediment and a strand of macrophyte were placed in the stream to simulate instream temperature oscillations. Photosynthesis-induced pH changes were allowed to proceed in the light chambers while photosynthesis was prevented in the dark chambers. Water samples were collected periodically...
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A number of investigations have shown that photoreduction of Fe(III) causes midday accumulations of dissolved Fe(II) in rivers and lakes, leading to large diel (24-h) fluctuations in the concentration and speciation of total dissolved iron. Less well appreciated is the importance of photoreduction in providing chemical energy for bacteria to thrive in low pH waters. Diel variations in water chemistry from the highly acidic (pH 2.3 to 3.1) Río Tinto, Río Odiel, and Río Agrio of southwestern Spain (Iberian Pyrite Belt) resulted in daytime increases in Fe(II) concentration of 15 to 66 µM at four diel sampling locations. Dissolved Fe(II) concentrations increased with solar radiation, and one of the stream sites showed...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Chemical Geology
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Substantial diel (24-h) cycles in dissolved (0.1-μm filtration) metal concentrations were observed during summer low flow, winter low flow, and snowmelt runoff in Prickly Pear Creek, Montana. During seven diel sampling episodes lasting 34–61.5 h, dissolved Mn and Zn concentrations increased from afternoon minimum values to maximum values shortly after sunrise. Dissolved As concentrations exhibited the inverse timing. The magnitude of diel concentration increases varied in the range 17–152% for Mn and 70–500% for Zn. Diel increases of As concentrations (17–55%) were less variable. The timing of minimum and maximum values of diel streamflow cycles was inconsistent among sampling episodes and had little relation to...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Environmental Geology
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Geothermal waters in the earth’s subsurface boil with steam separation and may mix with dilute ground waters (that may or may not contain sulfuric acid from sulfur oxidation), resulting in a wide range of compositions when they discharge and emerge at the surface. As they discharge onto the ground surface they undergo evaporative cooling, degassing, oxidation, and mineral precipitation. Within this aquatic environment of rapidly changing physical and chemical parameters, numerous microbial communities develop—some of which affect oxidation and mineral precipitation. Microbes are responsible for rapid oxidation of iron and arsenic in thermal outflows, and for catalyzing the production of sulfuric acid from the oxidation...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Samples were collected at or near baseflow conditions. Water pH and specific conductance were measured in the field, with specific conductance also measured in the laboratory and calculated based on the ionic strength of samples based on laboratory analyses. Water samples were collected for laboratory analyses using a peristaltic pump with silicon tubing. Samples were filtered through a reusable plexiglass filter holder with nylon screws using 0.45µm polyethersulfone membranes that were rinsed with approximately 20mL of sample water prior to collection. Splits were also collected unfiltered to determine trace metal concentrations associated with suspended sediments. The filtration apparatus was rinsed with deionized...
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An important challenge in microbial ecology is developing methods that simultaneously examine the physiology of organisms at the molecular level and their ecosystem level interactions in complex natural systems. We integrated extensive proteomic, geochemical, and biological information from 28 microbial communities collected from an acid mine drainage environment and representing a range of biofilm development stages and geochemical conditions to evaluate how the physiologies of the dominant and less abundant organisms change along environmental gradients. The initial colonist dominates across all environments, but its proteome changes between two stable states as communities diversify, implying that interspecies...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Molecular Systems Biology
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To characterize mercury (Hg) isotopes and isotopic fractionation in hydrothermal systems we analyzed fluid and precipitate samples from hot springs in the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field and vent chimney samples from the Guaymas Basin sea-floor rift. These samples provide an initial indication of the variability in Hg isotopic composition among marine and continental hydrothermal systems that are controlled predominantly by mantle-derived magmas. Fluid samples from Ojo Caliente hot spring in Yellowstone range in δ202Hg from - 1.02‰ to 0.58‰ (± 0.11‰, 2SD) and solid precipitate samples from Guaymas Basin range in δ202Hg from - 0.37‰ to - 0.01‰ (± 0.14‰, 2SD). Fluid samples from Ojo Caliente display mass-dependent...


map background search result map search result map Water and Sediment Geochemistry Data from the Vicinity of Yellow Pine, Idaho, 2014-2015 Yellowstone River at Corwin Springs, MT (YYCR) Falls River near Squirrel, ID (YFAL) Boiling River at Mammoth (YBOI) Water and Sediment Geochemistry Data from the Vicinity of Yellow Pine, Idaho, 2014-2015