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Studies conducted since the late 1970s have estimated the net energy value (NEV) of corn ethanol. However, variations in data and assumptions used among the studies have resulted in a wide range of estimates. This study identifies the factors causing this wide variation and develops a more consistent estimate. We conclude that the NEV of corn ethanol has been rising over time due to technological advances in ethanol conversion and increased efficiency in farm production. We show that corn ethanol is energy efficient as indicated by an energy output:input ratio of 1.34.
Policy assessment of energy conservation strategies has tended to emphasize technological and economic costs, problems, and benefits. However, too narrow a focus may fail to delineate all the environmental and social impacts associated with the technology in question. In recognition of the importance of a balanced evaluation, a study was undertaken to identify local-level perceptions about environmental and social problems and opportunities associated with several energy conservation measures. These measures included building performance standards and retrofit; waste heat utilization; modifications in land use configurations and transportation modes; and electric utility demand management, and rate reform initiatives....
The complexity of carbon reduction and economic sustainability is significantly complicated by competing aspects of socioeconomic practices as well as legislative, regulatory, and scientific requirements and protocols. An easy to read and understand guide, Sioshansi, along with an international group of contributors, moves through the maze of carbon reduction methods and technologies, providing steps and insights to meet carbon reduction requirements and maintaining the health and welfare of the firm. The book’s three part treatment is based on a clear and rigorous exposition of a wide range of options to reduce the carbon footprint Part 1 of the book, Challenge of Sustainability, examines the fundamental drivers...
More than 20 countries generate electricity from geothermal resources and about 60 countries make direct use of geothermal energy. A ten-fold increase in geothermal energy use is foreseeable at the current technology level. Geothermal Energy: An Alternative Resource for the 21st Century provides a readable and coherent account of all facets of geothermal energy development and summarizes the present day knowledge on geothermal resources, their exploration and exploitation. Accounts of geothermal resource models, various exploration techniques, drilling and production technology are discussed within 9 chapters, as well as important concepts and current technological developments.
Stakeholder analysis allows analysts to identify how parties might be affected by government projects. This process involves identifying the likely impacts of a proposed action and stakeholder groups affected by that action. Additionally, the process involves assessing how these groups might be affected and suggesting measures to mitigate any adverse effects. Evidence suggests that the efficiency and effectiveness of government actions can be increased and adverse social impacts mitigated when officials understand how a proposed action might affect stakeholders. This report discusses how to conduct useful stakeholder analyses for government officials making decisions on energy-efficiency and renewable-energy technologies...
Stakeholder analysis allows analysts to identify how parties might be affected by government projects. This process involves identifying the likely impacts of a proposed action and stakeholder groups affected by that action. Additionally, the process involves assessing how these groups might be affected and suggesting measures to mitigate any adverse effects. Evidence suggests that the efficiency and effectiveness of government actions can be increased and adverse social impacts mitigated when officials understand how a proposed action might affect stakeholders. This report discusses how to conduct useful stakeholder analyses for government officials making decisions on energy-efficiency and renewable-energy technologies...
Stakeholder analysis allows analysts to identify how parties might be affected by government projects. This process involves identifying the likely impacts of a proposed action and stakeholder groups affected by that action. Additionally, the process involves assessing how these groups might be affected and suggesting measures to mitigate any adverse effects. Evidence suggests that the efficiency and effectiveness of government actions can be increased and adverse social impacts mitigated when officials understand how a proposed action might affect stakeholders. This report discusses how to conduct useful stakeholder analyses for government officials making decisions on energy-efficiency and renewable-energy technologies...
This article reflects the results of a study on sustainability of energy crops. Contribution to the reduction of the greenhouse effect and other environmental effects were investigated for the Netherlands. The study assumed that energy crops are grown on set aside or grain land. Generating electricity and/or heat from hemp, reed, miscanthus, poplar and willow have the best prospects. These crops are sustainable and may in the future be economically feasible. Ethanol from winter wheat has the most favourable environmental effects, but is economically not interesting. Liquid fuels from oil seed rape and sugar beet are not very sustainable.
Long-term greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies for the Netherlands were studied, using a MARKAL energy model. The EMS study identifies longterm technological options for greenhouse gas emission reduction and assesses their cost-effectiveness, taking interactions between technologies into account. The project consisted of three parts: carbon dioxyde (CO 2) emission reduction in the energy system, integrated reduction of greenhouse gases from the energy system with consideration of upstream emissions and CO 2 reduction in the integrated energy and materials system. 500 energy technologies were assessed for their reduction potential. Significant emission reduction seems possible, but it takes an array of measures...
The use of biomass crops as an energy source is frequently mentioned as an option to reduce CO 2 emissions. To evaluate the possibilities reliable yield estimates of biomass crops are required. In this paper a simple method is developed to estimate regional yields of various biomass crops, based on the linear relation between intercepted light and biomass production. The quality of the estimates was studied by using the method to estimate yields of several agricultural crops in two regions in The Netherlands. In general a deviation of less than 10 % was found between actual and estimated average yield.
The development and exploitation of wind energy is crucially dependent on short term prognoses for power from wind. Intense efforts have been applied to development and implementation of such prognoses. Traditionally the criterion for a good prognosis is that the prognosis error in terms of the sum of squares of the errors is small. The key point in the paper is the demonstration that a variety of criteria exists. Which one is relevant can not be determined generally but will depend on the circumstances of the organization owning the wind mills and applying the prognosis, as well as the general condition of the electricity system in question. For instance a company responsible for the power balance in a system (could...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: short term wind prognosis, wind
The context: A time of unprecedented uncertainty nThe worst of the global economic crisis appears to be over –but is the recovery sustainable? nOil demand & supply are becoming less sensitive to price –what does this mean for future price movements ? nNatural gas markets are in the midst of a revolution –will it herald a golden era for gas? nCopenhagen Accord & G-20 subsidy reforms are key advances –but do they go far enough & will they be fully implemented ? nEmerging economies will shape the global energy future –where will their policy decisions lead us ?
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Natural gas, Oil, copenhagen accord
The article discusses a report published by the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) that examined the technical feasibility of using wind energy for electricity generation. The report assessed the costs, impacts and challenges associated with the production of 20% wind energy by 2030. Results have shown that there is a need for an enhanced transmission infrastructure and an increase in turbine installations to achieve 20% wind energy.
The article discusses a report published by the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) that examined the technical feasibility of using wind energy for electricity generation. The report assessed the costs, impacts and challenges associated with the production of 20% wind energy by 2030. Results have shown that there is a need for an enhanced transmission infrastructure and an increase in turbine installations to achieve 20% wind energy.
How much does real GDP respond to unanticipated changes in the real price of oil? Commonly used censored VAR models suggest a substantial decline in real GDP in response to unexpected increases in the real price of oil, yet no response to unexpected declines. We show that these estimates are invalid. Based on a structural model that encompasses both symmetric and asymmetric models as special cases, correctly computed impulse responses are of roughly the same magnitude in either direction, consistent with formal tests for symmetric responses. We discuss implications for theoretical models and for policy responses to energy price shocks.