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To test if reflectance increases to sedimentary organic matter (vitrinite) caused by broad ion beam (BIB) milling were related to molecular aromatization and condensation, we used Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies to evaluate potential compositional changes in the same vitrinite locations pre- and post-BIB milling. The same locations also were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine topographic changes caused by BIB milling (as expressed by the areal root-mean-square roughness parameter Rq). Samples consisted of four medium volatile bituminous coals. We used a non-aggressive BIB milling approach with conditions of [(5 min, 4 keV, 15°incline, 360° rotation at 25 rpm and 100%...
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Inorganic compositions of flowback and co-produced waters from hydrocarbon extraction have been studied directly and through laboratory experiments that seek to replicate subsurface water-rock interaction. Here a broad analysis is made of compositions from the U.S. Geological Survey Produced Waters Database (v2.3) and leachates (water, hydrochloric acid, artificial brine) for 12 energy-resource related shales from across the United States. The database illustrates common ranges for 26 elements in 4 produced water types and enhanced solubility with increasing ionic strength is observed for Al, Ba, Fe, Li, Mn, Rb, Sr, and possibly 11 other elements. Differences are observed between laboratory leachates and produced...
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The refractory nature of zircon to temperature and pressure allows even a single zircon grain to preserve a rich history of magmatic, metamorphic, and hydrothermal processes. Isotopic dating of micro-domains exposed in cross-sections of zircon grains allows us to interrogate this history. Unfortunately, our ability to select the zircon grains in a heavy mineral concentrate that records the most geochronologic information is limited by our inability to predict internal zonation from observations of whole zircon grains. Here we document the use of a petrographic microscope to observe and image the photoluminescence (PL) response of whole zircon grains excited under ultraviolet (UV) light, and the utility of this PL...
The nanoscale molecular composition of kerogen is a challenging parameter to characterize given the chemical and structural complexity exhibited by this important biopolymer. However, kerogen composition will strongly impact its reactivity and so is a critical parameter to understand petroleum generation processes during kerogen catagenesis. The recent advent of tip-enhanced analytical methods, such as atomic force microscopy-based infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR), has allowed for the major compositional features of kerogen to be elucidated at spatial resolutions at or below 50 nm. Here we apply AFM-IR to examine inertinite, an important kerogen maceral type, from an immature Eagle Ford Shale sample. Our data show...
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Solid bitumen is a petrographically-defined secondary organic matter residue produced during petroleum generation and subsequent oil transformation. The presence of solid bitumen impacts many shale reservoir properties including porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon generation and storage, amongst others. Furthermore, solid bitumen reflectance is an important parameter for assessing the thermal maturity of formations with little to no vitrinite. While the molecular composition of solid bitumen will strongly impact associated parameters such as the development of organic matter porosity, hydrocarbon generation, and optical reflectance, assessing the molecular composition of solid bitumen in situ within shale reservoirs...
As more hydrocarbon production from hydraulic fracturing and other methods produce large volumes of water, innovative methods must be explored for treatment and reuse of these waters. However, understanding the general water chemistry of these fluids is essential to providing the best treatment options optimized for each producing area. Machine learning algorithms can often be applied to datasets to solve complex problems. In this study, we used the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Produced Waters Geochemical Database (USGS PWGD) in an exploratory exercise to determine if systematic variations exist between produced waters and geologic environment that could be used to accurately classify a water sample to a given...
Categories: Data; Tags: Alabama, Alaska, Alaska Region, Arizona, Arkansas, All tags...
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Fluorescence spectroscopy via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to analyze ancient sedimentary organic matter, including Tasmanites microfossils in Devonian shale and Gloecapsomorpha prisca (G. prisca) in Ordovician kukersite from North American basins. We examined fluorescence emission as a function of excitation laser wavelength, sample orientation, and with respect to location within individual organic entities and along organic matter chemical transects. Results from spectral scans of the same field of view in Tasmanites with different laser lines showed progressive red-shift in emission maxima with longer excitation wavelengths. This result indicates steady-state Tasmanites fluorescence emission...
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Waters co-produced during petroleum extraction are the largest waste stream from oil and gas development. Reuse or disposal of these waters is difficult due both to their high salinities, which can greatly exceed 35 g/L (seawater equivalent), and also the sheer volume of wastewater generated, which is estimated at nearly 900 billion gallons per year across the United States. Beyond disposal concerns, produced water may also represent a possible source of valuable mineral commodities. While an understanding of the trace element composition of produced water is required for evaluating the associated resource and waste potential of these materials, measuring trace elements in high salinity brines is challenging due...
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Fractionation of petroleum during migration through sedimentary rock matrices has been observed across lengths of meters to kilometers. Selective adsorption of specific chemical moieties at mineral surfaces and/or the phase behavior of petroleum during pressure changes are typically invoked to explain this behavior. Given the current emphasis on unconventional (continuous) resources, there is a need to understand petroleum fractionation occurring during expulsion and migration at the nanometer to micron scale, due to the fine-grained nature of petroliferous mudrocks. Here organic matter compositional differences observed within kukersite petroleum source beds (containing acritarch Gloeocapsomorpha prisca) from the...
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Here the spatial variation in Raman estimates of thermal maturity within individual organic domains from several shale geologic reference materials originating from the Boquillas, Marcellus, Niobrara, and Woodford Formations are assessed from the respective Raman response. We show that for all four shales the thermal maturity parameters extracted from Raman spectra by iterative peak fitting can vary widely across distances of ≤5 µm within the same organic domain.
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The molecular composition of petroliferous organic matter and its composition evolution throughout thermal advance are key to understanding and insight into petroleum generation. This information is critical for comprehending hydrocarbon resources in unconventional reservoirs, as source rock organic matter is highly dispersed, in contact with the surrounding mineral matrix, and may be present as multiple organic matter types. Here, a combination of Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy approaches was applied to a marginally mature (vitrinite reflectance ~0.5%) sample of the Late Cretaceous Boquillas Shale before and after hydrous pyrolysis (HP) at 300 °C and 330 °C for 72 hours. This experimental design allowed...
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Citation Note: These data were collected as part of a research study published in Environmental Science and Technology. Please reference the following paper when citing these data. Blondes, M.S., Shelton, J.L., Engle, M.A., Trembly, J.P., Doolan, C.A., Jubb, A.M., Chenault, J.M., Rowan, E.L., Haefner, R.J., and Mailot, B.E., 2020, Utica Shale Play Oil and Gas Brines: Geochemistry and Factors Influencing Wastewater Management: Environmental Science & Technology, https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c02461. The Utica and Marcellus Shale Plays in the Appalachian Basin are the 4th and 1st largest natural gas producing plays in the United States. Hydrocarbon production generates large volumes of brine (“produced water”)...


    map background search result map search result map High Microscale Variability in Raman Thermal Maturity Estimates from Shale Organic Matter - Data Release Nanoscale Molecular Fractionation of Organic Matter within Unconventional Petroleum Source Beds (2019) Direct Trace Element Determination in Oil and Gas Produced Waters with Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES): Advantages of High Salinity Tolerance (2019) Fluorescence spectroscopy of ancient sedimentary organic matter via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) Investigating the effects of broad ion beam milling to sedimentary organic matter Nanoscale Molecular Composition of Solid Bitumen from the Eagle Ford Group Across a Natural Thermal Maturity Gradient Geochemistry of Utica Shale Play and other Appalachian produced waters Results of leaching experiments on 12 energy-related shales from the United States Atomic Force Microscopy-based Infrared Spectroscopy Data within Immature Eagle Ford Shale at the Nanometer-scale Photoluminescence Imaging of Whole Zircon Grains on a Petrographic Microscope—An Underused Aide for Geochronologic Studies Input Files and Code for: Machine learning can accurately assign geologic basin to produced water samples using major geochemical parameters Reflectance, Raman band separation and Mean multivariant curve resolution (MCR) in organic matter in Boquillas Shale High Microscale Variability in Raman Thermal Maturity Estimates from Shale Organic Matter - Data Release Nanoscale Molecular Composition of Solid Bitumen from the Eagle Ford Group Across a Natural Thermal Maturity Gradient Reflectance, Raman band separation and Mean multivariant curve resolution (MCR) in organic matter in Boquillas Shale Nanoscale Molecular Fractionation of Organic Matter within Unconventional Petroleum Source Beds (2019) Atomic Force Microscopy-based Infrared Spectroscopy Data within Immature Eagle Ford Shale at the Nanometer-scale Geochemistry of Utica Shale Play and other Appalachian produced waters Investigating the effects of broad ion beam milling to sedimentary organic matter Photoluminescence Imaging of Whole Zircon Grains on a Petrographic Microscope—An Underused Aide for Geochronologic Studies Fluorescence spectroscopy of ancient sedimentary organic matter via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) Results of leaching experiments on 12 energy-related shales from the United States Direct Trace Element Determination in Oil and Gas Produced Waters with Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES): Advantages of High Salinity Tolerance (2019) Input Files and Code for: Machine learning can accurately assign geologic basin to produced water samples using major geochemical parameters