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Folders: ROOT > ScienceBase Catalog > National and Regional Climate Adaptation Science Centers > Pacific Islands CASC > FY 2012 Projects > Developing High-Resolution Rainfall Change Scenarios for the Hawaiian Islands > Approved Products ( Show all descendants )

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_____Developing High-Resolution Rainfall Change Scenarios for the Hawaiian Islands
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This downloadable PDF research feature summarizes the Pacific Islands Climate Science Center-supported project "Climate Change Research in Support of Hawaiian Ecosystem Management: An Integrated Approach". The key goals of this project were 1) to understand how changes in the Earth’s future climate system will affect the frequency and severity of extreme weather events in Hawai`i, 2) to support studies of the ecological impacts of climate change on native Hawaiian plants and animals and 3) to provide information needed by natural resource managers charged with preserving native biodiversity.
Almost all daily rainfall time series contain gaps in the instrumental record. Various methods can be used to fill in missing data using observations at neighboring sites (predictor stations). In this study, five computationally simple gap-filling approaches—normal ratio (NR), linear regression (LR), inverse distance weighting (ID), quantile mapping (QM), and single best estimator (BE)—are evaluated to 1) determine the optimal method for gap filling daily rainfall in Hawaii, 2) quantify the error associated with filling gaps of various size, and 3) determine the value of gap filling prior to spatial interpolation. Results show that the correlation between a target station and a predictor station is more important...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
Abstract (from AMS100): Spatially continuous data products are essential for a number of applications including climate and hydrologic modeling, weather prediction, and water resource management. In this work, a distance-weighted interpolation method used to map daily rainfall and temperature in Hawaii is described and assessed. New high-resolution (250 m) maps were developed for daily rainfall and daily maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) near-surface air temperature for the period 1990–2014. Maps were produced using climatologically aided interpolation, in which station anomalies were interpolated using an optimized inverse distance weighting approach and then combined with long-term means to produce daily gridded...
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a statistical downscaling method in which the relationships between present-day daily weather patterns and local rainfall data are derived and used to project future shifts in the frequency of heavy rainfall events under changing global climate conditions. National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data from wet season months (November to April) 1958–2010 are composited for heavy rain days at 12 rainfall stations in the Hawaiian Islands. The occurrence of heavy rain events (days with amounts above the 90th percentile estimated from all wet season rain days 1958–2010) was found to be strongly correlated...
Abstract (from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JD022059/abstract): Seasonal mean rainfall projections for Hawai‘i are given based on statistical downscaling of the latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) global model results for two future representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). The spatial information content of our statistical downscaling method is improved over previous efforts through the inclusion of spatially extensive, high-quality monthly rainfall data set and the use of improved large-scale climate predictor information. Predictor variables include moisture transport in the middle atmosphere (700 hPa), vertical temperature gradients, and geopotential...
Abstract (from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.4862/abstract): Spatial patterns of rainfall in Hawai‘i are among the most diverse in the world. As the global climate warms, it is important to understand observed rainfall variations to provide context for future changes. This is especially important for isolated oceanic islands where freshwater resources are limited, and understanding the potential impacts of climate change on the supply of freshwater is critical. Utilizing a high-resolution gridded data set of monthly and annual rainfall for Hawai‘i from January 1920 to December 2012, seasonal and annual trends were calculated for every 250-m pixel across the state and mapped to produce spatially...