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Biodiversity in stream networks is threatened globally by interactions between habitat fragmentation and altered hydrologic regimes. In the Great Plains of North America, stream networks are fragmented by 19,000 anthropogenic barriers, and flow regimes are altered by surface water retention and groundwater extraction. We documented the distribution of anthropogenic barriers and dry stream segments in five basins covering the central Great Plains to assess effects of broad-scale environmental change on stream fish community structure and distribution of reproductive guilds. We used an information-theoretic approach to rank competing models in which fragmentation, discharge magnitude, and percentage of time streams had...
Categories: Data, Publication; Types: Citation, Map Service, OGC WFS Layer, OGC WMS Layer, OGC WMS Service; Tags: CATFISHES/MINNOWS, Colorado, Colorado, FISH, Federal resource managers, All tags...
Although biotic responses to contemporary climate change are spatially pervasive and often reflect synergies between climate and other ecological disturbances, the relative importance of climatic factors versus habitat extent for species persistence remains poorly understood. To address this shortcoming, we performed surveys for American pikas (Ochotona princeps) at > 910 locations in 3 geographic regions of western North America during 2014 and 2015, complementing earlier modern (1994–2013) and historical (1898–1990) surveys. We sought to compare extirpation rates and the relative importance of climatic factors versus habitat area for pikas in a mainland-versus-islands framework. In each region, we found widespread...
Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) has widely invaded the Great Basin, U.S.A. The sporadic natural phenomenon of complete stand failure (‘die- off’) of this invader may present opportunities to restore native plants. A recent die-off in Nevada was precision-planted with seeds of the native grasses Poa secunda (Sandberg bluegrass) and Elymus elymoides (bottlebrush squirreltail), of both local and nonlocal origin, to ask: 1) Can native species be restored in recent B. tectorum die-offs? And 2) Do local and nonlocal seeds differ in performance? Additionally, we asked how litter removal and water addition affected responses. Although emergence and growth of native seeds was lower in die-off than control plots early in year...
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This dataset is a component of a complete package of products from the Connect the Connecticut project. Connect the Connecticut is a collaborative effort to identify shared priorities for conserving the Connecticut River Watershed for future generations, considering the value of fish and wildlife species and the natural ecosystems they inhabit. Click here to download the full data package, including all documentation.This dataset depicts the potential capability of the landscape throughout the CT River Watershed to provide habitat for Blackpoll Warbler (Setophaga striata) based on environmental conditions existing in approximately 2010. Landscape capability integrates factors influencing climate suitability, habitat...
We examined patterns of genetic variation and diversity of extant pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis) populations across the species’ current range in Nevada and California. Our aims were to determine population genetic structure and levels of diversity across the southern portion of the species’ range. We genotyped 13 microsatellite loci from 194 fecal samples collected across 14 localities. Our Bayesian cluster analyses found 2 genetically distinct groups: 1 in the Mono Basin of California and the other encompassing all remaining Nevada Great Basin populations. Considering only the Nevada Great Basin group, we found 4 minimally divergent groups that overlap spatially with many individuals maintaining composite...
Land managers in the Great Basin are working to maintain or restore sagebrush ecosystems as climate change exacerbates existing threats. Web applications delivering climate change and climate impacts information have the potential to assist their efforts. Although many web applications containing climate information currently exist, few have been co-produced with land managers or have incorporated information specifically focused on land managers’ needs. Through surveys and interviews, we gathered detailed feedback from federal, state, and tribal sagebrush land managers in the Great Basin on climate information web applications targeting land management. We found that a) managers are searching for weather and climate...
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Floods, spatially complex water flows, and organism movements all generate important fluxes of aquatic-derived materials into terrestrial habitats, counteracting the gravity-driven downhill transport of matter from terrestrial-to-aquatic ecosystems. The magnitude of these aquatic subsidies isoften smaller than terrestrial subsidies to aquatic ecosystems but higher in nutritional quality, energy density, and nutrient concentration. The lateral extent of biological aquatic subsidies is typically small, extending only a few meters into riparian habitat; however, terrestrial consumers often aggregate on shorelines to capitalize on these high-quality resources. Although the ecological effects of aquatic subsidies remain...
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How local geomorphic and hydrologic features mediate the sensitivity of stream thermal regimes to variation in climatic conditions remains a critical uncertainty in understanding aquatic ecosystem responses to climate change. We used stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen to estimate contributions of snow and rainfall to 80 boreal streams and show that differences in snow contribution are controlled by watershed topography. Time series analysis of stream thermal regimes revealed that streams in rain-dominated, low-elevation watersheds were 5–8 times more sensitive to variation in summer air temperature compared to streams draining steeper topography whose flows were dominated by snowmelt. This effect was more pronounced...
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This dataset contains data collected within limestone cedar glades at Stones River National Battlefield (STRI) near Murfreesboro, Tennessee. This dataset contains information on soil microbial metabolic response for soil samples obtained from certain quadrat locations (points) within 12 selected cedar glades. This information derives from substrate utilization profiles based on Biolog EcoPlates (Biolog, Inc., Hayward, CA, USA) which were inoculated with soil slurries containing the entire microbial community present in each soil sample. EcoPlates contain 31 sole-carbon substrates (present in triplicate on each plate) and one blank (control) well. Once the microbial community from a soil sample is inoculated onto...
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To ensure comparable spatial and temporal coverage with similar historic datasets, we flew 32 east-west-oriented uniform transects (spaced at 15' latitude [27.8-km] intervals) when possible to the 2000-m isobath (includes shelf, slope, and rise waters). At the request of BOEM, we included six focal-area surveys nested within the overall broad transect survey area. Each focal-area survey consisted of ten 25-km, parallel transect lines targeting shelf waters and spaced at 6-km intervals. This pattern (broad survey lines and Focal Area survey lines) was surveyed during each oceanographic season: summer (June-July), fall (September-October), and winter (January-February) during 2011 and 2012. Aerial survey methods follow...
Centaurea diffusa is one of the most destructive invasive weeds in the western USA and allelopathy appears to contribute to its invasiveness (Callaway & Aschehoug 2000). Here we identify a chemical from the root exudates of C. diffusa, 8-hydroxyquinoline, not previously reported as a natural product, and find that it varies biogeographically in its natural concentration and its effect as an allelochemical. 8-Hydroxyquinoline is at least three times more concentrated in C. diffusa-invaded North American soils than in this weed's native Eurasian soils and has stronger phytotoxic effects on grass species from North America than on grass species from Eurasia. Furthermore, experimental communities built from North American...
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The influence of recent climate change on the world’s biota has manifested broadly, resulting in latitudinal range shifts, advancing dates of arrival of migrants and onset of breeding, and altered community relationships. Climate change elevates conservation concerns worldwide because it will likely exacerbate a broad range of identified threats to animal populations. In the past few decades, grassland birds have declined faster than other North American avifauna, largely due to habitat threats such as the intensification of agriculture. We examine the effects of local climatic variations on the breeding performance of a bird endemic to the shortgrass prairie, the Lark Bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys) and discuss...
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Playa wetlands on the west-central Great Plains of North America are vulnerable to sediment infilling from upland agriculture, putting at risk several important ecosystem services as well as essential habitats and food resources of diverse wetland-dependent biota. Climate predictions for this semi-arid area indicate reduced precipitation which may alter rates of erosion, runoff, and sedimentation of playas. We forecasted erosion rates, sediment depths, and resultant playa wetland depths across the west-central Great Plains and examined the relative roles of land use context and projected changes in precipitation in the sedimentation process. We estimated erosion with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE)...
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NOTE: Two data download links are provided. The first includes the data described below as a geographic point layer and as a .csv file. The second link is a data package containing: the annual probability of observing one individual, the annual probability of encountering a large flock, and the monthly probability of observing one individual, for the full set of 24 species (in .csv format), and the associated report “Mapping the distribution, abundance and risk assessment of marine birds in the Northwest Atlantic.” To improve display of this data on Data Basin the point data was converted to a raster grid. This map depicts the mean predicted probability of observing at least one individual Herring Gull (Larus...
Conservation Biology Institute (CBI) has been developing web applications to centralize and serve credible and usable information that allows natural resource managers, as well as the general public, to better understand the challenges posed by on-going environmental change. In particular CBI has designed a series of climate consoles that provide natural resource managers the most recent 5th Climate Model Intercomparison Program (CMIP5) climate projections, landscape intactness, and soil sensitivity for a series of reporting units over the western United States. The publically available web sites were refined based on feedback from a variety of users. In this paper, we describe each of the tools developed as open-source...
Rising temperatures have begun to shift flowering time, but it is unclear whether phenotypic plasticity canaccommodate projected temperature change for this century. Evaluating clines in phenological traits and the extentand variation in plasticity can provide key information on assessing risk of maladaptation and developing strategiesto mitigate climate change. In this study, flower phenology was examined in 52 populations of big sagebrush (Artemi-sia tridentata) growing in three common gardens. Flowering date (anthesis) varied 91 days from late July to lateNovember among gardens. Mixed-effects modeling explained 79% of variation in flowering date, of which 46% couldbe assigned to plasticity and genetic variation...
The loss of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) on sites disturbed by fire has motivated restoration seeding and planting efforts. However, the resulting sagebrush establishment is often lower than desired, especially in dry areas. Sagebrush establishment may be increased by addressing factors such as seed source and condition or management of the plant community. We assessed initial establishment of seeded sagebrush and four populations of small outplants (from different geographies, climates, and cytotypes) and small sagebrush outplants in an early seral community where mowing, herbicide, and seeding of other native plants had been experimentally applied. No emergence of seeded sagebrush was detected. Mowing...
Content Changing aspen distribution in response to climate change and fire is a major focus of biodiversity conservation, yet little is known about the potential response of aspen to these two driving forces along topoclimatic gradients. Objective This study is set to evaluate how aspen distribution might shift in response to different climate-fire scenarios in a semi-arid montane landscape, and quantify the influence of fire regime along topoclimatic gradients. Methods We used a novel integration of a forest landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS-II) with a fine-scale climatic water deficit approach to simulate dynamics of aspen and associated conifer and shrub species over the next 150 years under...


map background search result map search result map Modeling sediment accumulation in North American playa wetlands in response to climate change, 1940–2100 Aerial Survey 7km bins data Average Well Color Development (AWCD) data based on Community Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP) of soil samples from 120 point locations within limestone cedar glades at Stones River National Battlefield near Murfreesboro, Tennessee Predicted Annual Probability of Observing at least One Herring Gull Ohio - Original Vegetation Landscape Capability for Blackpoll Warbler, CT River Watershed Watershed geomorphology and snowmelt control stream thermal sensitivity to air temperature Subsidies of Aquatic Resources in Terrestrial Ecosystems Publication: Fragmentation and dewatering transform Great Plains stream fish communities Weather effects on avian breeding performance and implications of climate change Average Well Color Development (AWCD) data based on Community Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP) of soil samples from 120 point locations within limestone cedar glades at Stones River National Battlefield near Murfreesboro, Tennessee Watershed geomorphology and snowmelt control stream thermal sensitivity to air temperature Subsidies of Aquatic Resources in Terrestrial Ecosystems Landscape Capability for Blackpoll Warbler, CT River Watershed Ohio - Original Vegetation Aerial Survey 7km bins data Predicted Annual Probability of Observing at least One Herring Gull Modeling sediment accumulation in North American playa wetlands in response to climate change, 1940–2100 Publication: Fragmentation and dewatering transform Great Plains stream fish communities Weather effects on avian breeding performance and implications of climate change