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Previous studies indicate streams in the watershed of Anchorage, AK, contain elevated concentrations of several Potentially Toxic Metals (PTMs) in the water, suspended and streambed sediment and benthic macro invertebrates. This study investigated the sources, distribution, and uptake of PTMs by aquatic organisms in the watershed and their relationship to land-use patterns. Sampling sites were chosen that represent the watercourses of each of the four major streams in Anchorage. Water, streambed sediment, various species of benthic macroinvertebrates and slimy sculpin ( Cottus cognatus ) were collected throughout the summer of 2005. A lake sediment core was also collected from Campbell Lake to assess PTM deposition...
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Mining landscapes are avowedly complex and dynamic cultural resources, representing an important part of the nation's cultural heritage. They reflect changes in technology, social organization, and the influence of outside events. Mining landscapes are also representative of the experiences of change over time. This representative experience is not well-represented in the typical approach to considering preservation of mining districts during the review of federal projects. This thesis takes a different approach, developing a classification system with a greater focus on the changes that occur, and tests this against a small-scale lode mining district in Southcentral Alaska. While the ability to factor in change...
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Political ecology is a holistic mode of inquiry that applies political analysis to resource use and access by actors and organizations interacting in defined social and cultural contexts. This thesis uses a political ecology perspective to reveal how the Atna' Athabaskan people of South central Alaska use their knowledge of their environment to articulate a specific claim to Copper River salmon. Three case studies of Atna' public activism are presented demonstrating Atna' practice in governmental regulatory process. The position of the Atna' in the Copper River salmon fishery is contrasted with three other north Pacific Native American salmon regimes in order to demonstrate the special features of the Atna' context.
Dena'ina oral tradition indicates that the antecedent worldview brought with the migrating Athabascan Dena'ina into the Cook Inlet Basin and the Lake Clark/Iliamna Lake region included dual organization, perhaps moieties, matrilineal descent, a preferential rule for cross cousin marriage, and customs in which on ceremonial occasions guests would perform services for hosts, who recompensed the former with goods. Archaeological and ethnographic evidence is summarized in this thesis that indicates that the Dena'ina communal hunting and gathering and intensive salmon fishing strategy, in combination with borrowed Alutiiq technology, was a successful adaptation to the maritime/riverine environment of the Cook Inlet Basin...
Cultural change should not be viewed as the slow breakdown of a "traditional" culture through absorption but rather as the blending of different components of each interacting cultural group, blurring elements through temporal change. A modified version of the core-periphery model in which both micro-level and macro-level perspectives are utilized provides a framework in which to study interethnic relations within the zone of cultural interaction. Prior to contact, the Dena'ina had successfully adjusted their subsistence strategies in order to exploit an array of ecological niches. The flexibility to reformulate their sociopolitical structure continued throughout the contact period, allowing their participation...
Invading plants may cause biochemical changes to native plants by altering resource availability, thereby also changing the forage quality of native plants for native browsers. I measured plant growth, carbon and nitrogen content, and tannin and total phenolic production, which generally lower forage quality, in the boreal native Salix alaxensis under differing scenarios of invasion by nitrogen-fixing Melilotus alba . Additionally, I evaluated whether different populations of M. alba in Alaska suspected of having different introduction histories varied in competitive ability. I found that in this common garden experiment shading and soil nitrogen levels consistent with those found in M. alba populations did not...
The bedload geomorphic processes of Ship Creek in the vicinity of the Knik Arm Power Plant (KAPP) Dam are unknown. These processes are necessary to understand the consequences of removing the KAPP Dam. With the aid of hydrologic flow modeling software, the induced shear stress was analyzed for a given flood event with and without the KAPP Dam in place. The shear stress was used to estimate the volume of bedload sediment transport related to a given flood event. The model showed that the removal of the KAPP Dam will increase the shear stress upstream for approximately 200 feet for a low-order event, and 400 feet for a high order event. This increase in shear stress indicates that the creek will become more susceptible...
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, like wood and litter decaying fungi, are believed to produce extracellular oxidative enzymes. Oxidative enzymes associated with lignin degradation have been demonstrated to effectively degrade recalcitrant organic compounds, including chlorinated pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This thesis describes a suite of experiments investigating ECM fungi lignolytic enzymes and the fate of organochlorine pesticide in Alaskan ECM fungal cultures. In this study, molecular techniques were employed to assess the potential of Alaskan ECM fungal cultures to produce the lignolytic enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), and laccase (Lac). ECM mycelia were...
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The bedload geomorphic processes of Ship Creek in the vicinity of the Knik Arm Power Plant (KAPP) Dam are unknown. These processes are necessary to understand the consequences of removing the KAPP Dam. With the aid of hydrologic flow modeling software, the induced shear stress was analyzed for a given flood event with and without the KAPP Dam in place. The shear stress was used to estimate the volume of bedload sediment transport related to a given flood event. The model showed that the removal of the KAPP Dam will increase the shear stress upstream for approximately 200 feet for a low-order event, and 400 feet for a high order event. This increase in shear stress indicates that the creek will become more susceptible...
Dena'ina oral tradition indicates that the antecedent worldview brought with the migrating Athabascan Dena'ina into the Cook Inlet Basin and the Lake Clark/Iliamna Lake region included dual organization, perhaps moieties, matrilineal descent, a preferential rule for cross cousin marriage, and customs in which on ceremonial occasions guests would perform services for hosts, who recompensed the former with goods. Archaeological and ethnographic evidence is summarized in this thesis that indicates that the Dena'ina communal hunting and gathering and intensive salmon fishing strategy, in combination with borrowed Alutiiq technology, was a successful adaptation to the maritime/riverine environment of the Cook Inlet Basin...
The bedload geomorphic processes of Ship Creek in the vicinity of the Knik Arm Power Plant (KAPP) Dam are unknown. These processes are necessary to understand the consequences of removing the KAPP Dam. With the aid of hydrologic flow modeling software, the induced shear stress was analyzed for a given flood event with and without the KAPP Dam in place. The shear stress was used to estimate the volume of bedload sediment transport related to a given flood event. The model showed that the removal of the KAPP Dam will increase the shear stress upstream for approximately 200 feet for a low-order event, and 400 feet for a high order event. This increase in shear stress indicates that the creek will become more susceptible...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: GEOLOGY
Tiq'atl'ena Bena, TAL-049, is a multi-component archaeological site in the Sustina River Basin of Cook Inlet, southcentral Alaska, along Hewitt Lake near the confluence of the Yentna and Skwentna Rivers in the Talkeetna USGS quadrangle. The site consists of six localities, all of which contain similar archaeological features. Archaeological excavations have been performed in one semi-subterannean house feature in one of these localities (Wrathall Locality). Twelve other semi-subterannean features are documented in the Wrathall Locality but none have been excavated or tested. The excavations completed provide evidence of historic and prehistoric occupations. These occupations date from 4410 ± 90 years Before Present...
Previous studies indicate streams in the watershed of Anchorage, AK, contain elevated concentrations of several Potentially Toxic Metals (PTMs) in the water, suspended and streambed sediment and benthic macro invertebrates. This study investigated the sources, distribution, and uptake of PTMs by aquatic organisms in the watershed and their relationship to land-use patterns. Sampling sites were chosen that represent the watercourses of each of the four major streams in Anchorage. Water, streambed sediment, various species of benthic macroinvertebrates and slimy sculpin ( Cottus cognatus ) were collected throughout the summer of 2005. A lake sediment core was also collected from Campbell Lake to assess PTM deposition...
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, like wood and litter decaying fungi, are believed to produce extracellular oxidative enzymes. Oxidative enzymes associated with lignin degradation have been demonstrated to effectively degrade recalcitrant organic compounds, including chlorinated pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This thesis describes a suite of experiments investigating ECM fungi lignolytic enzymes and the fate of organochlorine pesticide in Alaskan ECM fungal cultures. In this study, molecular techniques were employed to assess the potential of Alaskan ECM fungal cultures to produce the lignolytic enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), and laccase (Lac). ECM mycelia were...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: M1-Flora
The bedload geomorphic processes of Ship Creek in the vicinity of the Knik Arm Power Plant (KAPP) Dam are unknown. These processes are necessary to understand the consequences of removing the KAPP Dam. With the aid of hydrologic flow modeling software, the induced shear stress was analyzed for a given flood event with and without the KAPP Dam in place. The shear stress was used to estimate the volume of bedload sediment transport related to a given flood event. The model showed that the removal of the KAPP Dam will increase the shear stress upstream for approximately 200 feet for a low-order event, and 400 feet for a high order event. This increase in shear stress indicates that the creek will become more susceptible...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: GEOLOGY
Mining landscapes are avowedly complex and dynamic cultural resources, representing an important part of the nation's cultural heritage. They reflect changes in technology, social organization, and the influence of outside events. Mining landscapes are also representative of the experiences of change over time. This representative experience is not well-represented in the typical approach to considering preservation of mining districts during the review of federal projects. This thesis takes a different approach, developing a classification system with a greater focus on the changes that occur, and tests this against a small-scale lode mining district in Southcentral Alaska. While the ability to factor in change...
High latitude trees are increasingly showing mixed growth responses to climate warming. Recent studies of white spruce (Picea glauca ) in the Brooks Range of Alaska have revealed that trees in the west have generally shown positive growth responses, while trees in the central and eastern Brooks Range have shown mixed and negative growth responses, respectively. An earlier study suggested that the growing season climate of the eastern Brooks Range is warmer and drier than in the west. On this basis, growth declines in the eastern Brooks Range were attributed to drought stress, caused by rising temperature and increasing evaporative demand. I investigated the hypothesis that drought stress can explain white spruce...
East Forelands and Fire Island have been identified as key sites in Cook Inlet for tidal power extraction and research of potential impacts of MHK devices on the physical environment is an essential element as part of the development and implementation of this technology. Impacts of TidGens and TGUs were simulated using a three dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic model with sediment transport capabilities built using the SNL-EFDC code. Simulated impacts on water age, tidal range and sediment transport appears to be greater at Fire Island than at East Forelands. Simulation of impacts to the bed surface thickness seems to show deposition of fine sediments upstream and downstream of devices at both locations, which corresponds...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: GEOLOGY
Identity and intensity of parasitism have been shown to be correlated to the host genotype at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a genomic region involved in the adaptive immune response. However, the evolutionary mechanisms by which parasites exert a selective force on host immune systems are unknown. This thesis investigates the relationship between parasitism and MHC genotype in two bear populations in Southcentral Alaska. We diagnosed infection using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), targeting the ribosomal subunit of 18S of common blood parasites. Parasitism was detected in half of brown bears and 75% of black bears. We detected Eimeria spp. and several species of apicomplexan and nematode parasites,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: M1-Mammals
Almost the entire coast of Nikiski and coastal plain of Cook Inlet is subject to erosion. Coastal bluffs, ranging from 6 to 60 meters (m) in height, are receding in response to natural processes, including wave attack, precipitation, and wind. The study of shoreline change and beach protection requires analysis of coastal processes over entire littoral cells, which may span 10-100 kilometers (km) in length. Wave data are generally not available at the site. Estimating wave growth and transformation, directional spectral wave analysis, wind analysis and tidal influences are the critical components of the coastal engineering projects. Generation of larger waves typically occurs in relatively deep water beyond and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: GEOLOGY


map background search result map search result map Dip nets, fish wheels, and motor homes: The Atna', traditional ecological knowledge, and resource management in the Copper River fishery, Alaska The mining landscape from a diachronic perspective: Examining the Kenai Star mining district, Southcentral Alaska Geomorphic processes of Ship Creek in the vicinity of the Knik Arm Power Plant Dam Biogeochemical pathways and land use associations of potentially toxic metals in the Anchorage watershed, Alaska The mining landscape from a diachronic perspective: Examining the Kenai Star mining district, Southcentral Alaska Geomorphic processes of Ship Creek in the vicinity of the Knik Arm Power Plant Dam Biogeochemical pathways and land use associations of potentially toxic metals in the Anchorage watershed, Alaska Dip nets, fish wheels, and motor homes: The Atna', traditional ecological knowledge, and resource management in the Copper River fishery, Alaska