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Mississippi River reintroductions (freshwater diversions) into wetlands previously disconnected from the river have been implemented in southeastern Louisiana as a means to rehabilitate degraded and submerging wetlands. To date, all active Mississippi River reintroductions have targeted marsh habitat. However, a 57 cubic meter per second (2,000 cubic foot per second) river reintroduction is being designed and implemented by the Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority of Louisiana to rehabilitate a degraded and submerging swamp forest of approximately 16,583 hectares (40,977 acres) in the Maurepas Swamp; 30 percent of the project area is closed forest canopy, 58 percent is transitional forest, and 12 percent...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Fact Sheet
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Tidal saline wetlands in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) are dynamic and frequently disturbed systems that provide myriad ecosystem services. For these services to be sustained, dominant macrophytes must continuously recolonize and establish after disturbance. Macrophytes accomplish this regeneration through combinations of vegetative propagation and sexual reproduction, the relative importance of which varies by species. Concurrently, tidal saline wetland systems experience both anthropogenic and natural hydrologic alterations, such as levee construction, sea-level rise, storm impacts, and restoration activities. These hydrologic alterations can affect the success of plant regeneration, leading to large-scale,...
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Spatial and temporal variability in factors influencing mangrove establishment and survival affects the distribution of mangrove, particularly near their latitudinal limit, where mangrove expansion into saltmarsh is conspicuous. In this paper the spatial variability in mangrove distribution and variability in factors influencing mangrove establishment and survival during the Quaternary period are reviewed, focussing on research at latitudinal limits in Australia and mainland USA. Despite similarities in the response of mangrove to some drivers, the expression of these drivers is both spatially and temporally variable, demonstrating the need for analyses of mangrove-saltmarsh dynamics to move beyond generalisations...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Wetlands
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At the fringe of Everglades National Park in southwest Florida, United States, the Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge (TTINWR) habitat has been heavily affected by the disruption of natural freshwater flow across the Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway 41). As the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) proposes to restore the natural sheet flow from the Picayune Strand Restoration Project area north of the highway, the impact of planned measures on the hydrology in the refuge needs to be taken into account. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, computationally efficient mass balance model to simulate the spatial and temporal patterns of water level and salinity within the area of interest....
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Tidal freshwater wetlands are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to climate change and rising sea levels. However salinification within these systems is poorly understood, therefore, productivity (litterfall, woody biomass, and fine roots) were investigated on three forested tidal wetlands [(1) freshwater, (2) moderately saline, and (3) heavily salt-impacted] and a marsh along the Waccamaw and Turkey Creek in South Carolina. Mean aboveground (litterfall and woody biomass) production on the freshwater, moderately saline, heavily salt-impacted, and marsh, respectively, was 1,061, 492, 79, and 0  g m−2 year−1 versus belowground (fine roots) 860, 490, 620, and 2,128  g m−2 year−1. Litterfall and woody biomass displayed...
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Mangrove forests grow on saline, periodically flooded soils of the tropical and subtropical coasts. The tree species that comprise the mangrove are halophytes that have suites of traits that confer differing levels of tolerance of salinity, aridity, inundation and extremes of temperature. Here we review how climate change and elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 will influence mangrove forests. Tolerance of salinity and inundation in mangroves is associated with the efficient use of water for photosynthetic carbon gain which unpins anticipated gains in productivity with increasing levels of CO2. We review evidence of increases in productivity with increasing CO2, finding that enhancements in growth appear to be similar...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Tidal wetlands are some of the most dynamic areas of the Earth and are found at the interface between the land and sea. Salinity, regular tidal flooding, and infrequent catastrophic flooding due to storm events result in complex interactions among biotic and abiotic factors. The complexity of these interactions, along with the uncertainty of where one draws the line between tidal and nontidal, makes characterizing tidal wetlands a difficult task. The three primary types of tidal wetlands are tidal marshes, mangroves, and freshwater forested wetlands. Tidal marshes are dominated by herbaceous plants and are generally found at middle to high latitudes of both hemispheres. Mangrove forests dominate tropical coastlines...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Freshwater forested wetlands commonly occur in the lower Coastal Plain of the southeastern US with baldcypress (Taxodium distichum [L.] L.C. Rich.) and water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.) often being the dominant trees. Extensive anthropogenic activities combined with eustatic sea-level rise and land subsidence have caused widespread hydrological changes in many of these forests. In addition, hurricanes (a common, although aperiodic occurrence) cause wide-spread damage from wind and storm surge events, with impacts exacerbated by human-mediated coastal modifications (e.g., dredging, navigation channels, etc.). Restoration of forested wetlands in coastal areas is important because emergent canopies can greatly diminish...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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We assessed the resilience of wetlands to sea-level rise along a transitional gradient from tidal freshwater forested wetland (TFFW) to oligohaline marsh by measuring processes controlling wetland elevation. We identified fundamental differences in how resilience is maintained across wetland community types, which have important implications for management activities that aim to restore or conserve resilient systems.
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Changing winter climate extremes are expected to result in the poleward migration of mangrove forests at the expense of salt marshes. Although mangroves and marshes are both highly valued ecosystems, the ecological implications of mangrove expansion have not been fully investigated. Here, we examined the effects of mangrove expansion on below-ground properties related to peat development and carbon storage. We investigated plant–soil interactions in marshes and across mangrove forest structural gradients in three locations in the northern Gulf of Mexico (USA). We compared our results to those from terrestrial grasslands where the effects of woody plant encroachment are often influenced by rainfall and plant traits....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Ecology
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Leaves from mangrove forests are often considered efficient in the use of water during photosynthesis, but less is known about whole-tree and stand-level water use strategies. Are mangrove forests as conservative in water use as experimental studies on seedlings imply? Here, we apply a simple model to estimate stand water use (S), determine the contribution of S to evapotranspiration (ET), and approximate the distribution of S versus ET over annual cycles for three mangrove forests in southwest Florida, USA. The value of S ranged from 350 to 511 mm year−1 for two mangrove forests in Rookery Bay to 872 mm year−1 for a mangrove forest along the Shark River in Everglades National Park. This represents 34–49% of ET...
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Mangrove wetland restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to compensate for mangrove wetland losses. However, ecosystem development and functional equivalence in restored and created mangrove wetlands are poorly understood. We compared a 20-year chronosequence of created tidal wetland sites in Tampa Bay, Florida (USA) to natural reference mangrove wetlands. Across the chronosequence, our sites represent the succession from salt marsh to mangrove forest communities. Our results identify important soil and plant structural differences between the created and natural reference wetland sites; however, they also depict a positive developmental trajectory for the created wetland sites that...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecosystems
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We determined how different hydroperiods affected leaf gas exchange characteristics of greenhouse-grown seedlings (2002) and saplings (2003) of the mangrove species Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn., Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f., and Rhizophora mangle L. Hydroperiod treatments included no flooding (unflooded), intermittent flooding (intermittent), and permanent flooding (flooded). Plants in the intermittent treatment were measured under both flooded and drained states and compared separately. In the greenhouse study, plants of all species maintained different leaf areas in the contrasting hydroperiods during both years. Assimilation–light response curves indicated that the different hydroperiods had little...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tree Physiology
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The objectives of this study were to identify processes that contribute to resilience of coastal wetlands subject to rising sea levels and to determine whether the relative contribution of these processes varies across different wetland community types. We assessed the resilience of wetlands to sea-level rise along a transitional gradient from tidal freshwater forested wetland (TFFW) to marsh by measuring processes controlling wetland elevation. We found that, over 5 years of measurement, TFFWs were resilient, although some marginally, and oligohaline marshes exhibited robust resilience to sea-level rise. We identified fundamental differences in how resilience is maintained across wetland community types, which...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecosystems
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In this chapter we will examine the hydrology of forested areas that are subject to soil saturation by rain, groundwater, or surface flooding. They include mangroves and other tidal forests, the forested portions of peatlands, and tree dominated wetlands defined by the Ramsar Convention (Mathews 1993). They also include estuarine tidal forests, palustrine forested wetlands, and the portion of palustrine scrub-shrub which are made up of immature tree species of the Cowardin et al. (1985) classification. A broad outline of ecology of all wetlands are described in Mitsch and Gosselink (2015), wetlands specifically with tidal influence are described by Tiner (2013), while descriptions of northern and southern forested...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Coastal forested hummocks support clusters of trees in the saltwater–freshwater transition zone. To examine how hummocks support trees in mesohaline sites that are beyond physiological limits of the trees, we used salinity and stable isotopes (2H and 18O) of water as tracers to understand water fluxes in hummocks and uptake by baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.), which is the most abundant tree species in coastal freshwater forests of the southeastern U.S. Hummocks were always partially submerged and were completely submerged 1 to 8% of the time during the two studied growing seasons, in association with high water in the estuary. Salinity, δ18O, and δ2H varied more in the shallow open water than in groundwater....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Ecohydrology
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Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa co-occur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1) were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (gw), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE), and photosynthetic nitrogen...
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The burial of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) in the large river-influenced estuarine-coastal regions is affected by hydrodynamic sorting, diagenesis and human activities. Typically, the inner shelf region of the East China Sea is a major carbon sink of the Yangtze River-derived fine-grained sediments. Most of the previous work concentrated on the studies of surface sediments or used a single-proxy in this region. In this study, two cores from the Zhejiang-Fujian Coast were analyzed using bulk (TOC, TN and δ13CTOC) and molecular biomarker (n-alkane, brassicasterol, dinosterol and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids) techniques to clarify the sources, spatiotemporal distribution and fate of SOM in the Yangtze...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Organic Geochemistry
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These data were collected from a small (14 ha), created salt marsh in Carteret County, North Carolina (34.82 deg. N; 76.61 deg. W). This site was created in 2007 following an engineering plan developed by Dr. Michael Burchell (NC-State University). This data collection was to support the development of a site-specific carbon budget. Data were collected from 2011 to 2013, or approximately 4-6 years post-creation. The data collection specifically funded by the U.S. Geological Survey includes plant carbon biomass, plant above ground biomass, plant below ground biomass, plant decomposition, and soil greenhouse gas fluxes, and these data are being made available. These data represent critical components of the carbon...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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Concerted mangrove research and rehabilitation efforts over the last several decades have prompted a better understanding of the important ecosystem attributes worthy of protection and a better conservation ethic toward mangrove wetlands globally. While mangroves continue to be degraded and lost in specific regions, conservation initiatives, rehabilitation efforts, natural regeneration, and climate range expansion have promoted gains in other areas, ultimately serving to curb the high mangrove habitat loss statistics from the doom and gloom of the 1980s. We highlight those trends in this article and introduce this special issue of Hydrobiologia dedicated to the important and recurring Mangrove and Macrobenthos Meeting....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Hydrobiologia


map background search result map search result map Leaf gas exchange and nutrient use efficiency help explain the distribution of two Neotropical mangroves under contrasting flooding and salinity Elevation change along a coastal wetland landscape gradient from tidal freshwater forested wetland to oligohaline marsh in the Southeastern U.S.A. (2009-2014) data Elevation change along a coastal wetland landscape gradient from tidal freshwater forested wetland to oligohaline marsh in the Southeastern U.S.A. (2009-2014) data Leaf gas exchange and nutrient use efficiency help explain the distribution of two Neotropical mangroves under contrasting flooding and salinity