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This paper describes the design and performance of a two-dimensional moored array for sampling horizontal variability in the upper ocean. The mooring was deployed in Massachusetts Bay in a water depth of 84 m for the purpose of measuring the horizontal structure of internal waves. The mooring was instrumented with three acoustic current meters (ACMs) spaced along a 170-m horizontal cable that was stretched between two subsurface buoys 20 m below the sea surface. Five 25-m-long vertical instrument strings were suspended from the horizontal cable. A bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was deployed nearby to measure the current velocity throughout the water column. Pressure sensors mounted on the...
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Southwestern Asia, defined here as the domain bounded by 20°–40°N and 40°–70°E, which includes the nations of Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, is a water-stressed and semiarid region that receives roughly 75% of its annual rainfall during November–April. The November–April climate of southwestern Asia is strongly influenced by tropical Indo-Pacific variability on intraseasonal and interannual time scales, much of which can be attributed to sea surface temperature (SST) variations. The influences of lower-frequency SST variability on southwestern Asia climate during November–April Pacific decadal SST (PDSST) variability and the long-term trend in SST (LTSST) is examined. The U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Climate
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In an earlier global climate-change study, air temperature and precipitation data for the entire twenty-first century simulated from five general circulation models were used as input to precalibrated watershed models for 14 selected basins across the United States. Simulated daily streamflow and energy output from the watershed models were used to compute a range of statistics. With a side-by-side comparison of the statistical analyses for the 14 basins, regional climatic and hydrologic trends over the twenty-first century could be qualitatively identified. Low-flow statistics (95% exceedance, 7-day mean annual minimum, and summer mean monthly streamflow) decreased for almost all basins. Annual maximum daily streamflow...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Earth Interactions
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The ice formed by cold-season rainfall or rain on snow (ROS) has striking impacts on the economy and ecology of Alaska. An understanding of the atmospheric drivers of ROS events is required to better predict them and plan for environmental change. The spatially/temporally sparse network of stations in Alaska makes studying such events challenging, and gridded reanalysis or remote sensing products are necessary to fill the gaps. Recently developed dynamically downscaled climate data provide a new suite of high-resolution variables for investigating historical and projected ROS events across all of Alaska from 1979 to 2100. The dynamically downscaled reanalysis data of ERA-Interim replicated the seasonal patterns...
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In the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes phase 2a experiment, meteorological data for the year 1987 from Cabauw, the Netherlands, were used as inputs to 23 land-surface flux schemes designed for use in climate and weather models. Schemes were evaluated by comparing their outputs with long-term measurements of surface sensible heat fluxes into the atmosphere and the ground, and of upward longwave radiation and total net radiative fluxes, and also comparing them with latent heat fluxes derived from a surface energy balance. Tuning of schemes by use of the observed flux data was not permitted. On an annual basis, the predicted surface radiative temperature exhibits a range of 2 K...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Climate
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A portable truck-mounted C-band Doppler weather radar was deployed to observe rainfall over the Station Fire burn area near Los Angeles, California, during the winter of 2009/10 to assist with debris-flow warning decisions. The deployments were a component of a joint NOAA–U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research effort to improve definition of the rainfall conditions that trigger debris flows from steep topography within recent wildfire burn areas. A procedure was implemented to blend various dual-polarized estimators of precipitation (for radar observations taken below the freezing level) using threshold values for differential reflectivity and specific differential phase shift that improves the accuracy of the rainfall...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Journal of Hydrometeorology
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Ancient blue oak trees are still widespread across the foothills of the Coast Ranges, Cascades, and Sierra Nevada in California. The most extensive tracts of intact old-growth blue oak woodland appear to survive on rugged and remote terrain in the south Coast Ranges and on the foothills west and southwest of Mt. Lassen. In our sampling of old-growth stands, most blue oak appear to have recruited to the canopy in the mid- to late-19th century. The oldest living blue oak tree sampled was over 459-years old and several dead blue oak logs had over 500 annual rings. Precipitation sensitive tree-ring chronologies up to 700-years long have been developed from old blue oak trees and logs. Annual ring-width chronologies...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Earth Interactions
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Located on the Bahr el Jebel in South Sudan, the Sudd is one of the largest floodplain wetlands in the world. Seasonal inundation drives the hydrologic, geomorphological, and ecological processes, and the annual flood pulse is essential to the functioning of the Sudd. Despite the importance of the flood pulse, various hydrological interventions are planned upstream of the Sudd to increase economic benefits and food security. These will not be without consequences, in particular for wetlands where the biological productivity, biodiversity, and human livelihoods are dependent on the flood pulse and both the costs and benefits need to be carefully evaluated. Many African countries still lack regional baseline information...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Earth Interactions
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Climate warming is projected to result in increases in total annual precipitation in northeastern North America. The response of runoff to increases in precipitation is likely to be more complex because increasing evapotranspiration (ET) could counteract increasing precipitation. This study was conducted to examine these competing trends in the historical record for 22 rivers having >70 yr of runoff data. Annual (water year) average precipitation increased in all basins, with increases ranging from 0.9 to 3.12 mm yr−1. Runoff increased in all basins with increases ranging from 0.67 to 2.58 mm yr−1. The ET was calculated by using a water balance approach in which changes in terrestrial water storage were considered...
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In recent years climate model experiments have been increasingly oriented towards providing information that can support local and regional adaptation to the expected impacts of anthropogenic climate change. This shift has magnified the importance of downscaling as a means to translate coarse-scale global climate model (GCM) output to a finer scale that more closely matches the scale of interest. Applying this technique, however, introduces a new source of uncertainty into any resulting climate model ensemble. Here we present a method, based on a previously established variance decomposition method, to partition and quantify the uncertainty in climate model ensembles that is attributable to downscaling. We apply...
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This dataset represents results from this study attributed to the NHDPlus V2 catchments. Changes in climate occurring throughout the Mississippi River Basin are expected to lead to additional impacts in stream habitats and fish assemblages in multiple ways, including changing changing thermal properties and flow regimes. To manage streams for current impacts and future changes, managers need region-wide information for decision-making and developing proactive management strategies. Our project provides a suite of climate metrics that have been found to be relevant to the distribution and population structure of aquatic organisms in freshwater stream networks. These results provide natural resource managers, decision-makers,...
Categories: Data; Types: Map Service, OGC WFS Layer, OGC WMS Layer, OGC WMS Service; Tags: Academics & scientific researchers, Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Complete, All tags...
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Values of average annual precipitation (AAP) are desired for hydrologic studies within a watershed containing Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository. Reliable values of AAP are not yet available for most areas within this watershed because of a sparsity of precipitation measurements and the need to obtain measurements over a sufficient length of time. To estimate AAP over the entire watershed, historical precipitation data and station elevations were obtained from a network of 62 stations in southern Nevada and southeastern California. Multivariate geostatistics (cokriging) was selected as an estimation method because of a significant (p = 0.05) correlation of r = .75...


map background search result map search result map The ancient blue oak woodlands of California: longevity and hydroclimatic history Trends in precipitation, runoff, and evapotranspiration for rivers draining to the Gulf of Maine in the United States Precipitation estimation in mountainous terrain using multivariate geostatistics. Part I: structural analysis Design and performance of a horizontal mooring for upper-ocean research Data: Current and future CNRM CM3 climate data for NHD v2 catchments within the Mississippi River Basin Design and performance of a horizontal mooring for upper-ocean research Precipitation estimation in mountainous terrain using multivariate geostatistics. Part I: structural analysis Trends in precipitation, runoff, and evapotranspiration for rivers draining to the Gulf of Maine in the United States The ancient blue oak woodlands of California: longevity and hydroclimatic history Data: Current and future CNRM CM3 climate data for NHD v2 catchments within the Mississippi River Basin