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GLM model data sets used to evaluate changes in the hydrodynamics of Anvil Lake, Wisconsin


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Robertson, D.M., and Kennedy, J.L., 2018, GLM model data sets used to evaluate changes in the hydrodynamics of Anvil Lake, Wisconsin: U.S. Geological Survey data release,


Interannual differences in the water quality of Anvil Lake, WI, were examined to determine how water level and climate affect the hydrodynamics and trophic state of shallow lakes, and their importance compared to anthropogenic changes in the watershed. To determine how changes in water level may affect these processes, the General Lake Model (GLM) was used to simulate how the lake’s thermal structure should change in response to changes in water level using R. This dataset includes the data inputs to the GLM model and the direct outputs from the model. Model Calibration (GLM_CalibrationZ); Simulation of with Deep Lake and Cold Weather (GLM_Deep_Cold_SimulationZ); Simulation of with Deep Lake and Hot Weather (GLM_Deep_Hot_SimulationZ); [...]


Point of Contact :
Dale M Robertson
Originator :
Dale M Robertson, James L Kennedy
Metadata Contact :
Dale M Robertson
Publisher :
U.S. Geological Survey
Distributor :
U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
USGS Mission Area :
Water Resources
SDC Data Owner :
Upper Midwest Water Science Center

Attached Files

Click on title to download individual files attached to this item.

Original FGDC Metadata

37.34 KB application/fgdc+xml
“Calibration Input and Output Files”
2.88 MB application/zip
“Simulation for Deep and Cold Conditions - Input and Output”
180.1 KB application/zip
“Simulation for Deep and Hot Conditions - Input and Output”
181.01 KB application/zip
“Simulation for Shallow and Cold Conditions - Input and Output”
179.4 KB application/zip
“Simulation for Deep and Hot Conditions - Input and Output”
180.63 KB application/zip


Decreases in water level are expected to cause Anvil Lake and other shallow lakes to stratify fewer days, and have warmer bottom temperatures and more deep-mixing events. Increasing air temperatures should cause these lakes to have shorter ice cover, longer summer stratification period and warmer bottom temperatures. How water level affects water quality depends on how nutrient loading and lake volume vary: during drier, low-water years, lakes with large interannual changes in loading should have better water quality whereas, lakes with small changes in loading should degrade slightly. Anthropogenic changes in Anvil Lake’s watershed over the past ~100 years were about 1.5 times the effects of changes in water level when levels were low, but the effects were similar when levels were high. Climate warming is expected to increase productivity in shallow lakes because warmer air temperatures will likely increase bottom temperatures increasing sediment phosphorus release and deep mixing events enabling this phosphorus to reach the epilimnion.



  • USGS Data Release Products



Data source
Input directly

Additional Information


Type Scheme Key
DOI doi:10.5066/F7DV1HVR

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