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Monitoring mortality of brown treesnakes fed an oral toxicant (acetaminophen) in an external bait placement dosing technique in the laboratory, 2017


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Nafus, M.G., 2021, Monitoring mortality of brown treesnakes fed an oral toxicant (acetaminophen) in an external bait placement dosing technique in the laboratory, 2017: U.S. Geological Survey data release,


Accidentally introduced to Guam, the brown treesnake (BTS) has extirpated nearly all native forest birds and imposed cost millions of dollars in economic damages annually. Acetaminophen is a safe and effective oral toxicant for invasive BTS, and an automated aerial delivery system (ADS) has been developed for landscape-scale distribution and snake suppression. An 80 milligram dose has proven 100% lethal for most BTS; however, there have been no previous trials that compared internal versus external placement of the oral toxicant on the bait and how that affects mortality of individuals. This study compared mortality following exposure to three treatments: placement of the toxicant inside a dead mouse bait, placement of the toxicant [...]


Point of Contact :
Melia G Nafus
Originator :
Melia G Nafus
Metadata Contact :
Fort Collins Science Center
Publisher :
U.S. Geological Survey
USGS Mission Area :
SDC Data Owner :
Fort Collins Science Center
Distributor :
U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase

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Toxicant Feed Study.xlsx 32.69 KB application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet


The data were collected to verify that a change in toxicant placement on dead mouse baits would not affect efficacy as measured by brown treesnake mortality. As such individual brown treesnakes collected through visual surveys and trapping were fed dead mouse baits in the laboratory and monitored for time to death. Snakes were broken into three treatments balanced by sex and collection methodology that included: a toxicant placed inside a dead mouse bait, a toxicant placed outside a dead mouse bait, and a toxicant placed outside a dead mouse bait exposed to simulated rainfall. The toxicant was an 80 mg acetaminophen tablet, which is an EPA registered pesticide for brown treesnakes. Following ingestion snakes were monitored until death. For any individual that survived, a second toxic bait was provided. The data are appropriate for using to determine if size, sex, mass, or form of toxicant treatment affect survival probabilities for brown treesnakes following ingestion of acetaminophen.



  • Fort Collins Science Center (FORT)
  • USGS Data Release Products



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DOI doi:10.5066/P9HJIBE8

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