Skip to main content

Mean grass cover in grass removal, seed addition experiment, Hakalau Forest NWR


Publication Date
Start Date


Yelenik, S.G., Rehm, E.M., and D'Antonio, C.M., 2021, Hakalau Forest NWR seed rain, seedling, and plant data for 2017-2019: U.S. Geological Survey data release,


This data release includes data and metadata on a large-scale seed addition and grass removal experiment that varied both seed rain and grass cover. All sites were within Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge on Hawaii Island. Broadly, this study asks what thresholds of seed rain and native and exotic plant cover are needed for passive forest regeneration. Specifically this data decribes the percent cover of grass over time in plots where we experimantally added varying levels of seed rain and/or manipulated grass biomass manually.


Attached Files

Click on title to download individual files attached to this item.

mean grass cover in seed addition_grass removal experiment.csv 9.62 KB text/csv


Alternative stable equilibrium (ASE) theory hypothesizes that a system can exist as multiple stable-states under the same environmental conditions. The current state is determined by priority effects and is non-transitory due to the positive feedbacks between the community and the environment. Only when certain thresholds are met do systems experience phase shifts from one stable-state to an alternative. Understanding where these thresholds are is important for restoration and management because it helps managers predict the level of resources needed to push an ecosystem from a degraded state to a more desired condition. We addressed thresholds to native plant germination and survival by experimentally manipulating seed rain and exotic grass cover, while simultaneously monitoring background rates of these variables. As a part of this we implemented an experiment where we varied the exotic grass cover and seed rain ourselves, to better understand where these thresholds lie, and if it is realistic to think natural forest regeneration will happen naturally or management will be needed.

Item Actions

View Item as ...

Save Item as ...

View Item...