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Results of leaching experiments on 12 energy-related shales from the United States


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Croke, M.R., Bern, C.R., Birdwell, J.E., Jubb, A.M., Adams, M., and Chenault, J.C., 2020, Results of leaching experiments on 12 energy-related shales from the United States: U.S. Geological Survey data release,


Inorganic compositions of flowback and co-produced waters from hydrocarbon extraction have been studied directly and through laboratory experiments that seek to replicate subsurface water-rock interaction. Here a broad analysis is made of compositions from the U.S. Geological Survey Produced Waters Database (v2.3) and leachates (water, hydrochloric acid, artificial brine) for 12 energy-resource related shales from across the United States. The database illustrates common ranges for 26 elements in 4 produced water types and enhanced solubility with increasing ionic strength is observed for Al, Ba, Fe, Li, Mn, Rb, Sr, and possibly 11 other elements. Differences are observed between laboratory leachates and produced waters. Reasons for [...]


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DR_Table_brine_leaches.csv 8.31 KB text/csv
DR_Table_HCl_leaches.csv 7.95 KB text/csv
DR_Table_quantitative_mineralogy.csv 742 Bytes text/csv
DR_Table_shale_elemental_composition.csv 4.42 KB text/csv
DR_Table_water_leaches.csv 9.8 KB text/csv


Data were collected in order to analyze leachates from 12 energy-resource related shales.



  • Geology, Energy & Minerals (GEM) Science Center
  • USGS Data Release Products



Please see attached metadata record for full dataset provenance.

Additional Information


Type Scheme Key
DOI doi:10.5066/P98GUULU
USGS_ScienceCenter Geology, Energy, and Minerals Science Center
USGS_MissionArea Energy and Minerals
USGS_keywords Energy Resources, Geochemistry

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