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Specific conductance of flatwood salamander breeding ponds: pre- and post-Hurricane Michael, 2013-2018


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Barichivich, W.J., and Walls, S.C., 2019, Specific conductance of flatwood salamander breeding ponds: pre- and post-Hurricane Michael, 2013-2018: U.S. Geological Survey data release,


Hurricane Michael impacted the gulf coast of the southeastern USA in October 2018. During this storm, St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, located along the northern Gulf of Mexico’s coast in the panhandle region of Florida, experienced storm surge that was 2.3 to 3.3 m above sea level. Storm surge pushed sea water into some ephemeral freshwater ponds used for breeding by the federally-threatened Frosted Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum). Not all breeding wetlands were inundated by storm surge but, of those that were, conductivity was 11.2 to 216.7 times greater than in spring 2018. After the storm, specific conductance varied from 80 to 23,100 µS/cm (compared to 75 to 445 µS/cm in Spring 2018), setting the stage for varying [...]


Point of Contact :
William J Barichivich
Originator :
William J Barichivich, Susan Walls
Metadata Contact :
William J Barichivich
SDC Data Owner :
Wetland and Aquatic Research Center
USGS Mission Area :
Distributor :
U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase

Attached Files

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StMarksNWR_FSBP_SpC.csv 13.27 KB


In response to indications of worldwide declines in amphibian populations, the President and Congress directed Interior Department agencies to initiate a national program of amphibian monitoring, research, and conservation. There is an urgent need to determine the scope and severity of the problem and to investigate causes. The U.S. Geological Survey is uniquely qualified to coordinate and lead a cooperative national effort because its scientists have been in the forefront of studying amphibian populations and life history traits, measuring and monitoring environmental characteristics, and conducting research into potential causes of decline. As a result, the Agency formed the National Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI).



  • USGS Data Release Products
  • USGS Wetland and Aquatic Research Center



Additional Information


Type Scheme Key
DOI doi:10.5066/P9V4A2GV

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