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The Relative Impacts of Climate and Land-use Change on Conterminous United States Bird Species from 2001 to 2075


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Sohl, T.L., 2018, The Relative Impacts of Climate and Land-use Change on Conterminous United States Bird Species from 2001 to 2075: U.S. Geological Survey data release,


Species distribution models often use climate data to assess contemporary and/or future ranges for animal or plant species. Land use and land cover (LULC) data are important predictor variables for determining species range, yet are rarely used when modeling future distributions. In this study, maximum entropy modeling was used to construct species distribution maps for 50 North American bird species to determine relative contributions of climate and LULC for contemporary (2001) and future (2075) time periods. Results indicate species-specific response to climate and LULC variables; however, both climate and LULC variables clearly are important for modeling both contemporary and potential future species ranges. This data release provides [...]


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“Baird's Sparrow Results”
116.16 MB application/zip
“Cactus Wren Results”
329.61 MB application/zip
“Anna's Hummingbird Results”
397.88 MB application/zip
“Band-tailed Pigeon Results”
521.37 MB application/zip
“Bobolink Results”
660.62 MB application/zip
“Black-capped Chickadee Results”
758.14 MB application/zip
“Brown Thrasher Results”
834.94 MB application/zip
“American Goldfinch Results”
999.01 MB application/zip

“Brown-headed Cowbird Results”
1.09 GB application/zip

“Blue-winged Teal Results”
1.12 GB application/zip
“Chestnut-collared Longspur Results”
252.34 MB application/zip
“Gray Vireo Results”
338.76 MB application/zip
“Gambel's Quail Results”
361.76 MB application/zip
“Gray Partridge Results”
427.22 MB application/zip
“Carolina Wren Results”
640.83 MB application/zip
“Dickcissel Results”
851.34 MB application/zip

“Eastern Kingbird Results”
1.01 GB application/zip
“Grasshopper Sparrow Results”
1,004.09 MB application/zip

“Downy Woodpecker Results”
1.07 GB application/zip

“Great Horned Owl Results”
1.17 GB application/zip

“Great Blue Heron Results”
1.1 GB application/zip
“Lark Bunting Results”
499.13 MB application/zip
“Hooded Warbler Results”
509.3 MB application/zip
“Ferruginous Hawk Results”
624.92 MB application/zip
“Northern Pintail Results”
965.72 MB application/zip

“Green-winged Teal Results”
1.01 GB application/zip

“Northern Harrier Results”
1 GB application/zip

“Lark Sparrow Results”
1.07 GB application/zip
“Pygmy Nuthatch Results”
497.59 MB application/zip
“Painted Bunting Results”
521.32 MB application/zip
“Red-headed Woodpecker Results”
852.82 MB application/zip
“Red-eyed Vireo Results”
912.49 MB application/zip
“Pileated Woodpecker Results”
874.52 MB application/zip
“Orchard Oriole Results”
918.39 MB application/zip

“Red-tailed Hawk Results”
1.07 GB application/zip

“Pied-billed Grebe Results”
1.14 GB application/zip
“Sedge Wren Results”
374.65 MB application/zip
“Sharp-tailed Grouse Results”
392.62 MB application/zip
“Scissor-tailed Flycatcher Results”
480.17 MB application/zip
“Ruby-throated Hummingbird Results”
629.81 MB application/zip
“Short-eared Owl Results”
793.93 MB application/zip
“Savannah Sparrow Results”
881.95 MB application/zip
“Sora Results”
939.89 MB application/zip
“White-headed Woodpecker Results”
275.67 MB application/zip
“Tufted Titmouse Results”
547.32 MB application/zip
“Western Tanager Results”
751.13 MB application/zip
“Vesper Sparrow Results”
780.12 MB application/zip
“Yellow-headed Blackbird Results”
919.17 MB application/zip
“Western Meadowlark Results”
986.25 MB application/zip
“Western Kingbird Results”
1,002.8 MB application/zip
“Comparison of results for AUC scores, variable significance, and more”
87.27 KB application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet
“Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)”
34.57 KB text/html
“Metadata (HTML format)”
63.26 KB text/html


Data were created in a modeling procedure as a sensitivity analysis to determine the relative impacts of climate change and land-use change on the distributions of 50 different bird species in the conterminous United States. The hypothesis was that existing species distribution models that incorporate projected climate data but do not use projected land-use data are providing an incomplete story of potential change in future bird species distributions.

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DOI doi:10.5066/P9PTJ0PO

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