Social organization of the Gunnison's prairie dog, Cynomys gunnisoni, was studied in two populations in south-central Colorado. Gunnison's prairie dogs live in complex, interactive societies fitting current definitions of highly social ground squirrels. Members of harems (‘coteries’) cooperatively use and defend a common territory. Spatial overlap is extensive between the adult male(s) and adult females, and among adult females within the harem through the active season. Amicable behavioral interactions are frequent within the harem, whereas interactions between members of different harems are primarily agonistic and spatial overlap is minimal. Although their behavioral repertoire is more limited, social organization of the Gunnison's prairie dog most closely resembles that of the black-tailed prairie dog, C. ludovicianus. Although body size, age of first reproduction, and age of emigration differed between the two study populations (Rayor 1985a), a comparison of social traits did not reveal substantial differences. Published in Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, volume 22, issue 1, on pages 69 - 78, in 1988.