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Fuinhas, José A.

This paper analyses the factors behind the deployment of renewable energy, focusing particularly on the effect of energy efficiency policies and measures. The impact of these factors is appraised within the context of several phases of the use of renewable sources. We therefore apply the quantile regression technique to a set of 21 European Countries in two time spans: from 1990 to 1998, and from 1999 to 2006. We control variables of policy, environment, socioeconomic characteristics, and electricity generation. For the second period, energy efficiency policies and measures concerning renewable sources effectively promote renewables, namely in the take-off phase. We shed light on the lobbying effect of traditional...
Despite the increasing amount of literature available on renewable energy, the empirical analysis about drivers promoting renewables remains scarce. We have analyzed those drivers for European Countries. Over an extended period of time (1990-2006) we used panel data techniques, namely the fixed effects vector decomposition. The results suggest that both the lobby of the traditional energy sources (oil, coal, and natural gas) and CO2 emissions restrain renewable deployment. The objective of reducing energy dependency appears to stimulate renewable energy use. Our results robustly support the EU decision to create a directive promoting the use of renewable sources (Directive 2001/77/EC). We also offer suggestions...
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