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D.C. Twichell

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Interest in the generation of tsunamis by submarine mass movements has warranted a reassessment of their distribution and the nature of submarine landslides offshore of the eastern U.S. The recent acquisition and analysis of multibeam bathymetric data over most of this continental slope and rise provides clearer view into the extent and style of mass movements on this margin. Debris flows appear to be the dominant type of mass movement, although some translational slides have also been identified. Areas affected by mass movements range in size from less than 9 km2 to greater than 15,200 km2 and reach measured thicknesses of up to 70 m. Failures are seen to originate on either the open-slope or in submarine canyons....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation
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The purpose of this study was to determine if and how a large, modern estuarine system, situated in the middle of an ancient carbonate platform, has affected its adjacent inner shelf both in the past during the last, post-glacial sea-level rise and during the present. An additional purpose was to determine if and how this inner shelf seaward of a major estuary differed from the inner shelves located just to the north and south but seaward of barrier-island shorelines. Through side-scan sonar mosaicking, bathymetric studies, and ground-truthing using surface grab samples as well as diver observations, two large submarine sand plains were mapped - one being the modern ebb-tidal delta and the other interpreted to be...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Marine Geology
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During the winter of 1982 and the summer and early fall of 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences of the United Kingdom collected approximately 30,508 line kilometers of seismic-reflection data in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) as part of a USGS program to map the EEZ. In water depths exceeding 3,000 m, survey line spacing was about 25 km and gradually decreased to about 5 km in 250 m water depths. No areas were surveyed with depths shallower than 250 m. Orientation of the tracklines was in general parallel to the trend of the bathymetric contours (Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4).
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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Apalachicola Bay and St. George Sound contain the largest oyster fishery in Florida, and the growth and distribution of the numerous oyster reefs here are the combined product of modern estuarine conditions and the late Holocene evolution of the bay. A suite of geophysical data and cores were collected during a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Services Center, and the Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve to refine the geology of the bay floor as well as the bay's Holocene stratigraphy. Sidescan-sonar imagery, bathymetry, high-resolution seismic profiles, and cores show that oyster reefs occupy the crests of sandy shoals that...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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A program of geophysical mapping and vibracoring was conducted to better understand the geologic evolution of Apalachicola Bay. Analyses of the geophysical data and sediment cores along with age control provided by 34 AMS 14C dates on marine shells and wood reveal the following history. As sea level rose in the early Holocene, fluvial deposits filled the Apalachicola River paleochannel, which extended southward under the central part of the bay and seaward across the continental shelf. Sediments to either side of the paleochannel contain abundant wood fragments, with dates documenting that those areas were forested at 8,000 14C years b.p. As sea level continued to rise, spits formed of headland prodelta deposits....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geo-Marine Letters
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