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Alan H. Welch

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Natural occurrences of ground water with moderate (10 to 50 micrograms per liter) to high (greater than 50 micrograms per liter) concentrations of arsenic are common throughout much of the Western United States. High concentrations of arsenic are generally associated with one of four geochemical environments: (1) basin-fill deposits of alluvial-lacustrine origin, particularly in semiarid areas, (2) volcanic deposits, (3) geothermal systems, and (4) uranium and gold-mining areas. These findings are based on an extensive literature review, compilation of unpublished reports and data, and the review of data bases containing more than 7,000 analyses of ground-water samples for arsenic. In the first two environments,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Groundwater
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Operating Criteria and Procedures established in 1988 for delivery of water for irrigation in the Newlands Project area include regulations and methods to increase Project efficiency. Public Law 101-618 of 1990 includes a target of 75-percent Project efficiency and a program of water-rights acquisition for wetlands maintenance. The directives could result in large reductions in water used for irrigation in the Carson Desert, potentially affecting ground-water supplies. Previous studies of the area have been evaluated to determine the current understanding of how aquifers are recharged, what controls the flow and quality of ground water, potential effects of changes in water use, and what additional information would...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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Gross-beta activity has been used as an indicator of beta-emitting isotopes in water since at least the early 1950s. Originally designed for detection of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests, analysis of gross-beta activity is widely used in studies of naturally occurring radioactivity in ground water. Analyses of about 800 samples from 5 ground-water regions of the United States provide a basis for evaluating the utility of this measurement. The data suggest that measured gross-beta activities are due to (1) long-lived radionuclides in ground water, and (2) ingrowth of beta-emitting radionuclides during holding times between collection of samples and laboratory measurements.Although40K...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Applied Geochemistry
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Arsenic (As) distribution and toxicology in the environment is a serious issue, with millions of individuals worldwide being affected by As toxicosis. Sources of As contamination are both natural and anthropogenic and the scale of contamination ranges from local to regional. There are many areas of research that are being actively pursued to address the As contamination problem. These include new methods of screening for As in the field, determining the epidemiology of As in humans, and identifying the risk of As uptake in agriculture. Remediation of As-affected water supplies is important and research includes assessing natural remediation potential as well as phytoremediation. Another area of active research is...
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Water quality data for groundwater has been compiled for the Tonopah 1 degree x 2 degree quadrangle which covers a portion of central Nevada. Chemical characteristics of water are shown on a map (at a scale of 1:250,000) and on trilinear diagrams for the major ions. The data for the area are also presented in a table. (USGS)
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Open-File Report
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